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UDC 628.1.03

Ponomarev A. P.

Aqueous extract of shungite mineral – a complexing agent
for microorganisms in aqueous solution purification


The presence of microbiological pollution has been one of the most important factors that determine drinking water quality. Among the variety of water purification technologies unique mineral – shungite that contains carbon in active form – fullerene has been widely used over recent years. Herewith the strengths of shungite including bactericidal one are associated with fullerenes in particular. It is known that fullerenes merge into water in minimum concentrations; whereas for their efficient extraction organic solvents are needed. The results of studies of the effect of aqueous shungite extract containing beside macro- and microelements ultramicroelements – lanthanoids on microorganisms in aqueous solutions with the purpose of disinfection are presented. Electron microscopic studies provided for determining dual character of the effect: complex formation of microorganism cells and evident signs of bacterial cell destruction. Microorganisms as part of aqueous complexes are removed by sedimentation, centrifuging or microfiltration. Through the example of nanobacteria and foot-and-mouth disease viruses and virions the process of complex formation shall be considered as concentration with possible further use of the given microorganisms for scientific studies. The main mechanism of complex formation is the presence of high-reactive lanthanoid cations that are trivalent positive under normal conditions in shungite aqueous solution. The phenomenon of selective coagulation of bacterial cells is due to the reaction of lanthanoid cation complex formation with nucleic acids of microorganisms. It is assumed that the reaction of nucleic acid with metals is carried out by phosphate groups.

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UDC 628.168.4

Gandurina L. V., Getmantsev S. V., Raff P. A., Nikiforova A. Ju.

Chemical aspects of decoloration of low turbidity natural water with aluminium salts


The mechanism of decoloration of natural water with aluminium sulfate aluminium polyoxychloride is considered. The complexing reactions of humus acids with aluminium salts mainly contribute to the decoloration of natural water. The parallel proceeding reaction of aluminium sulfate and polyoxychloride hydrolysis facilitates the reduction of aluminium ion concentration in treated water but does not reduce color. Empirical dependences of coagulant dosages on color and alkalinity of raw water have been determined. Higher efficiency and lower dosages of aluminium polyoxychloride compared to aluminium sulfate used for decoloration are stipulated by the polymer origin of aluminium polyoxychloride. The use of coagulants in combination with cationic Praestol 650 flocculant provides for improving the efficiency of decoloration by 10–20% at the optimal coagulant: flocculant ratio of 50:1 for aluminium polyoxychloride and 20:1 for aluminium sulfate.

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