№10|2020

ЗА РУБЕЖОМ

DOI 000000

УДК 628.169

Кофман В. Я.

Интенсификация производства биогаза при анаэробном
сбраживании избыточного активного ила (обзор)

Аннотация

В процессе биологической очистки сточных вод образуются большие объемы осадков. Среди способов обращения с ними важное место занимает анаэробное сбраживание, сочетающее как возможности производства биогаза, так и предотвращения вторичного загрязнения окружающей среды. Стадией, лимитирующей скорость анаэробного сбраживания, является гидролиз. Распространенный способ увеличения скорости гидролиза и повышения производства биогаза – предварительная обработка осадков, разработка вариантов которой является областью заметной исследовательской активности. Рассмотрены способы химической предварительной обработки осадков (кислотная, щелочная, электрохимическое окисление, озонирование, процесс Фентона, персульфатный процесс, обработка пероксидом кальция), биологической предварительной обработки (двухступенчатый термофильный/мезофильный процесс) и физической предварительной обработки (термический гидролиз, СВЧ-обработка, электрокинетическая дезинтеграция, ультразвуковая обработка, гомогенизация при высоком давлении). Представлены запатентованные технологии предварительной обработки осадков сточных вод и основные производители соответствующего оборудования. В качестве альтернативы традиционному анаэробному сбраживанию рассматривают микробный электролизный элемент, в котором производство метана в процессе электрометаногенеза происходит в присутствии экзоэлектрогенных бактерий. В настоящее время доступны для промышленной реализации целый ряд технологий предварительной обработки осадков сточных вод. В этой связи насущной необходимостью является разработка стандартизированной методики анализа технико-экономических показателей различных систем анаэробного сбраживания с целью выбора оптимального для конкретных условий варианта.

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