DOI 10.35776/MNP.2020.06.08
UDC 628.169

Kofman V. Ya.

Water sludge: utilization in the production of construction materials and agriculture Alternative coagulants (a review)


Utilization of water sludge in significant amounts can be provided by using it in the production of construction materials and in agriculture. The use of water sludge in the construction industry can result in significant savings in traditional raw materials without compromising product quality. However, the supply of water sludge to the construction industry enterprises, has not been established so far, and the instability of its composition is posed as the main reason. At the same time, the results achieved evidence significant efforts made in this area. Based on the use of water sludge, technologies have been developed for the production of cement, building mortar, concrete, brick, roofing tiles, and ceramic products. Agricultural use of water sludge is considered as a most affordable and large-scale option of its disposal. The concentration of organics and heavy metals in water sludge is quite limited, which sets it apart from wastewater sludge and allows it being classified as safe. To date, in a number of countries many years of large-scale experiments have been conducted on the use of water sludge for adjusting the concentration of soluble phosphorus in soils; binding soluble forms of arsenic and chromium, and adjusting the concentration of trace elements. A radical solution to the problem of water sludge disposal should be associated with reducing its amount generated during water purification process. In this direction, studies are being conducted on alternative coagulants, primarily of plant origin. The results achieved made it possible to carry out pilot tests of using aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera oil-tree seeds as a coagulant in the purification of surface water.

Key words

, , , , , , , , ,

The further text is accessible on a paid subscription.
For authorisation enter the login/password.
Or subscribe


  1. Yen C.-L., Tseng D.-H., Lin T.-T. Characterization of eco-cement paste produced from waste sludges. Chemosphere, 2011, v. 84, pp. 220–226.
  2. Chen H., Mab X., Dai H. Reuse of water purification sludge as raw material in cement production. Cement & Concrete Composites, 2010, v. 32, pp. 436–439.
  3. Pan J.R., Huang C., Lin S. Reuse of fresh water sludge in cement making. Water Science and Technology, 2004, v. 50 (9), pp. 183–188.
  4. El-Didamony H., Khalil K. A., Heikal M. Physico-chemical and surface characteristics of some granulated slag-fired drinking water sludge composite cement pastes. HBRC Journal, 2014, v. 10, pp. 73–81.
  5. Huang C., Pan J.R., Liu Y. Mixing water treatment residual with excavation waste soil in brick and artificial aggregate making. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 2005, v. 131, pp. 272–277.
  6. Chiang K.-Y., Chou P.-H., Hua C.-R., et. al. Lightweight bricks manufactured from water treatment sludge and rice husks. Journal of Hazardous Material, 2009, v. 171, pp. 76–82.
  7. Urban R. C., Isaac R. L. WTP and WWTP sludge management: a case study in the metropolitan area Campinas, southeastern Brasil. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2018, v. 190, no. 10, рр. 584/1–584/18.
  8. Teixeira S. R., Santos G. T. A., Souza A. E., et. al. The effect of incorporation of a Brazilian WTPs sludge on the properties of ceramic materials. Applied Clay Science, 2011, v. 53, pp. 561–565.
  9. Ling Y. P., Tham R.-H., Lim S.-M., et al. Evaluation and reutilization of water sludge from water processing plant as a green clay substituent. Applied Clay Science, 2017, v. 143, pp. 300–306.
  10. Huang C.-H., Wang S.-Y. Application of water treatment sludge in the manufacturing of lightweight aggregate. Construction and Building Materials, 2013, v. 43, pp. 174–183.
  11. Sales A., De Souza F. R., Almeida F. R. Mechanical properties of concrete produced with a composite of water treatment sludge and sawdust. Construction and Building Materials, 2011, v. 25 (6), pp. 2793–2798.
  12. Kaosol T. Reuse water treatment sludge for hollow concrete block manufacture. Energy Research Journal, 2010, v. 1 (2), pp. 131–134.
  13. Zamora R. M. R., Alfaro O. C., Cabirol N., et al. Valorization of drinking water treatment sludges as raw materials to produce concrete and mortar. American Journal of Environmental Science, 2008, v. 4 (3), pp. 223–228.
  14. Nowasell Q. C., Kevern J. T. Using drinking water treatment waste as a lowcost internal curing agent for concrete. ACI Materials Journal, 2015, v. 112 (1), pp. 69–78.
  15. Codling E. E., Chaney R. L., Mulchi C. L. Biomass yield and phosphorus availability to wheat grown on high phosphorus soils amended with phosphate inactivating residue. Drinking water treatment residue. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analyses, 2002, v. 33, pp. 1039–1061.
  16. Oladeji O. O., O’Connor G. A., Sartain J. B., Nair V. D. Controlled application rate of water treatment residual for agronomic and environmental benefits. Journal of Environmental Quality, 2007, v. 36, pp. 1715–1724.
  17. Bayley R. M., Ippolito J. A., Stromberger M. E., et al. Water treatment residuals and biosolids co-applications affect phosphatases in semi-arid rangeland soil. American Journal of Soil Science Society, 2008, v. 72, pp. 711–719.
  18. Sarcar D., Makris K. C., Vandanapu V., Datta R. Arsenic immobilization in soils amended with drinking water treatment residuals. Environmental Pollution Journal, 2007, v. 146, pp. 414–419.
  19. Sarcar D., Quazi S., Makris K. C., et al. Arsenic bioaccessibility in a soil amended with drinking water treatment residuals in the presence of phosphorus fertilizer. Archives of Environment Contamination and Toxicology, 2007, v. 53, pp. 329–336.
  20. Makris K. C., Sarkar D., Parsons J. G., et al. Surface arsenic speciation of drinking water treatment residual using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 2007, v. 311, pp. 544–550.
  21. Makris K. C., Salazar J., Quazi S., et al. Controlling the fate of roxarsone and inorganic arsenic in poultry litter. Journal of Environment Quality, 2008, v. 37, pp. 963–971.
  22. Nielsen S. S., Petersen L. R., Kjeldsen P., Jakobsen R. Amendment of arsenic and chromium polluted soil from wood preservation by iron residues from water treatment. Chemosphere, 2011, v. 84 (4), pp. 383–389.
  23. Novak J. M., Szogi A. A., Watts D. W., Busscher W. J. Water treatment residuals amended soil release Mn, Na, S and C. Soil Science, 2007, v. 172, pp. 992–1000.
  24. Ippolito J. A., Barbarick K. A., Stromberger M. E., et al. Water treatment residuals and biosolids long-term co-applications effects to semi-arid grassland soils and vegetation. American Journal of Soil Science Society, 2009, v. 73, pp. 1880–1889.
  25. Mahdy A. M., Elkhatib E. A., Fathi N. O. Drinking water treatment residuals as an amendment to alkaline soils. Effects on bioaccumulation of heavy metals and aluminium in corn plants. Plant, Soil and Environment, 2008, v. 54, pp. 234–246.
  26. Codling E. E., Mulchi C. L., Chaney R. L. Grain yield and mineral element composition of maize grown on high phosphorus soils amended with water treatment residual. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 2007, v. 30, pp. 225–240.
  27. Babatunde A. O., Zhao Y. Q., Yang Y., Kearney P. Reuse of dewatered aluminium-coagulated water treatment residual to immobilize phosphorus. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2008, v. 136, pp. 108–115.
  28. Codling E. E. Effects of soil acidity and cropping on solubility of by-product immobilized phosphorus and extractable aluminium, calcium and iron from two high-phosphorus soils. Soil Science, v. 2008, v. 173, pp. 552–559.
  29. Agyin-Biricorang S., Oladeji O. O., O’Connor G. A., et al. Efficasy of drinking-water treatment residual in controlling off-site phosphorus losses. A field study in Florida. Journal of Environmental Quality, 2009, v. 38, pp. 1076–1085.
  30. Oladeji O. O., Sartain J. B., O’Connor G. A. Land application of aluminium water treatment residual. Aluminium phytoavailability and forage yield. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analyses, 2009, v. 40, pp. 1483–1498.
  31. Agying-Biricorang S., O’Connor G. A. Aging effects on reactivity of an aluminium-based drinking-water treartment residual as a soil amendment. Science of the Total Environment, 2009, v. 407, pp. 826–834.
  32. Ippolito J. A., Barbarick K. A., Stromberger M. E., et al. Water treatment residuals and biosolids long-term co-applications effects to semi-arid grassland soils and vegetation. American Journal of Soil Science Society, 2009, v.  73, pp. 1880–1889.
  33. Van Alstyne R., McDowell L. R., Davis P. A., et al. Effects of an aluminium-water treatment residual on performance and mineral status of feeder lambs. Small Ruminant Research, 2007, v. 73, pp. 77–86.
  34. Bolto B., Gregory J. Organic polyelectrolytes in water treatment. Water Research, 2007, v. 41, pp. 2301–2324.
  35. Saleem M., Bachmann R. T. A contemporary review on plant-based coagulants for applications in water treatment. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 2019, v. 72, pp. 281–297.
  36. Camacho F. P., Sousa V. S., Bergamasco R., et al. The use of Moringa oleifera as a natural coagulant in surface water treatment. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2017, v. 313, pp. 226–237.
  37. Ghebremichael K. A., Gunaratna K. R., Henriksson H., et al. A simple purification and activity assay of the coagulant protein from Moringa oleifera seed. Water Research, 2005, v. 39, pp. 2338–2344.
  38. Baptista A. T. A., Silva M. O., Gomes R. G., et al. Protein fractionation of seeds of Moringa oleifera and its application in superficial water treatment. Separation and Purification technology, 2017, v. 180, pp. 114–124.
  39. Baptista A. T. A., Coldebella P. F., Cardines P. H. F., et al. Coagulation-flocculation process with ultrafiltered saline extract of Moringa oleifera for the treatment of surface water. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2015, v. 276, pp. 166–173.
  40. Luo Y., Gao B., Yue Q., Li R. Application of Enteromorpha polysaccharides as coagulant aid in the simultaneous removal of CuO nanoparticles and Cu (II): Effect of humic acid concentration. Chemosphere, 2018, v. 204, pp. 492–500.

Banner Oct 2024

myproject msk ru

Баннер конференции г. Пятигорск

souz ingenerov 02

Aquatherm 200x200 gif ru foreign

ata 200x100ru