07 2020

Номер 7 / 2020

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№7|2020

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

DOI 1035776/MNP.2020.07.01
UDC 628.162.84

FESENKO L. N., Ignatenko S. I., Skryabin A. Yu., Pchel'nikov I. V.

Formation of volatile chlororganic compounds in the process
of the Don River water disinfection with chlorine-containing agents

Summary

Various oxidants are used for water purification and disinfection, including chlorine and its derivatives (hypochlorites, chloramines, bleach, etc.), ozone, less often chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate, etc. Traditionally, the sanitary and epidemiological safety of drinking water is ensured by chlorination owing to the sanitary and hygienic reliability, prolonged bactericidal action, relative simplicity and economic efficiency of the method. While disinfecting water, an agent containing active chlorine is used, which, upon entering into a substitution reaction with organic substances present in water, forms toxic compounds belonging to the group of trihalomethanes (chloroform, dichlorobromomethane, chlorodibromomethane, bromoform, etc.). The Don River water is characterized by the presence of bromides (0.18–0.2 mg/dm3) resulting in the formation of bromine-containing volatile chlororganic compounds. The water treatment facilities of the Industrial District of Novocherkassk have introduced the technology of «Chlorine dioxide and chlorine» disinfectant production based on the redox reaction between chlorate and sodium chloride in acid environment. The use of liquid chlorine and sodium hypochlorite for the disinfection of the Don River water leads to the formation of volatile chlororganic compounds with dibromochloromethane and chlorodibromomethane dominated. Preammoniation of water with a chlorine to ammonium sulfate ratio of 4:1 is an effective way to reduce the concentrations of volatile chlororganic compounds to 0.02–0.1 MPC while using liquid chlorine or sodium hypochlorite. Chlorate-chloride technology of producing chlorine dioxide in acid environment instead of «Chlorine dioxide and chlorine» agent generates 100% hypochlorite solution in the hypochlorous acid format that, in the absence of water preammoniation, is capable of forming volatile chlororganic compounds in concentrations exceeding the MPC.

Key words

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№7|2020

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2020.07.02
UDC 628.16.065.2

Gandurina L. V., Frog B. N., Mashtakova Ekaterina

The use of organic coagulants for turbid water clarification

Summary

The results of studies of the coagulating ability of domestic organic coagulants of well-known brands for the treatment of turbid waters with color not exceeding the water quality target, depending on the characteristics of the coagulants, water turbidity and process parameters of coagulation and sedimentation are presented. The efficiency of using organic coagulants VPK-402, Kaustamin-15 and Biopag to reduce the turbidity of water caused by fine-grained clay particles with a hydraulic size of less than 0.01 mm/s is considered. It was found that VPK-402 coagulant characterized by the highest molecular weight, possessed the greatest coagulating ability. It was shown that the dose of the coagulant did not exceed 0.4 mg/l with an increase in the turbidity of the source water to 750 mg/l. The maximum reduction in water turbidity by sedimentation with the use of organic coagulants is observed with a flocculation time of 20 minutes, where 83–84% of the resulting flocs have a hydraulic size of more than 0.8 mm/s.

Key words

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№7|2020

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2020.07.03
UDC 556.3+628.16+544.726

Fedorova S. V.

Distribution of lithium in subpermafrost water and its possible use for drinking water supply in Yakutia

Summary

В Центральной Якутии использование подмерзлотных вод в хозяйственно-питьевых целях ограничено в связи с повышенным содержанием отдельных элементов, в том числе лития. На основе обобщения химических анализов проб воды из водозаборных скважин дана количественная оценка содержания лития в подземных водах южной части Якутского артезианского бассейна. Максимальная концентрация лития (0,85 мг/л) выявлена в подмерзлотных водах совместного нижнеюрского среднекембрийского водоносного комплекса, в литологическом составе которого присутствуют глинистые породы. Изучен процесс сорбции лития из модельных растворов и натурных подмерзлотных вод сильнокислотной Na-катионитной ионообменной смолой, содержащей активные сульфо­группы. По результатам экспериментальных исследований построены графические кривые извлечения лития, кинетические и динамические зависимости. Гидрохимическая аналитика проб воды выполнялась методом капиллярного электрофореза. В процессе лабораторных экспериментов содержание лития в натурных подмерзлотных водах снизилось с 0,41 до 0,006 мг/л, в модельных растворах – с 0,5 до 0,003 мг/л. Состояние ионообменного равновесия при обмене ионов Li+ на Na+ установилось в течение 15–20 минут после контакта ионообменной смолы с модельным раствором и подмерзлотной водой. Установлено, что степень извлечения лития из природных подмерзлотных вод в статических условиях составляет около 90%, в динамических условиях – 99%. Результаты исследований могут быть использованы при разработке комплексных схем очистки подмерзлотных вод Якутии для питьевого водоснабжения.

Key words

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№7|2020

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2020.07.04
UDC 628.196

Klebeko Pavel, Romanovskii Valentin

Modified anthracites as effective catalytic materials for deironing of undergroundwater

Summary

The results of the study of modified anthracite as one of the most promising filtering materials that can be used in water treatment for undergroundwater deironing are presented. Anthracite granules were coated with iron oxides by exothermic combustion in solutions in a muffle furnace. Iron-containing sludge from water treatment plants was used as a precursor of iron. The effect of four different reducing agents on the surface-phase composition and properties of modified materials was studied. Using the method of exothermic combustion in solutions anthracite granules were modified with the formation of finely dispersed and crystalline structures of iron oxides on their surface. This had a positive effect on the catalytic ability of the material to underground water deironing. The catalytic properties of the obtained samples and the efficiency of deironing of underground water were investigated.

Key words

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№7|2020

LAWS, STANDARDS, NORMATIVES

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2020.07.05
UDC 628.1.033+628.3:658.562

Vinogradov Sergei, Samburski Georgi, Mikhailov P. B.

Development of a national standard in the field of automatic water quality control for water supply and wastewater disposal systems

Summary

Lately a lot of attention has been paid to the aspects of the automation of analytical monitoring of the composition and properties of different water types, on the legislative level, in particular. Formation of risk-oriented approaches for drinking water supply; requirements to analytical wastewater monitoring systems as part of the transition to the best available technologies – all this makes actual the issues of developing and using automatic water quality monitoring systems. Such measuring systems provide for not only real-time control of the technological processes of water and wastewater treatment, but also for executing industrial environmental control of effluent discharges, monitoring of pollution of natural waters, and drinking water quality monitoring. The main tools that underlie the development of a state standard for analytical water quality monitoring systems are presented.

Key words

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№7|2020

LAWS, STANDARDS, NORMATIVES

DOI 10.35776/MNP2020.07.06
UDC 628.1/.2:627.133:006.91

Ermakov Anatolii, ROMANOVA N. L., Turan Turai

Metrological support for measuring the flow rate and volume of cold water, wastewater in SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg»

Summary

Regulatory and technical measures required for the metrological support of measuring the flow rate and volume of water and wastewater are considered. The measures form the core of reliable measurements at the facilities of SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg» and include: standardization of the measurement accuracy; developing or updating regulatory documents; developing a reference base for calibration and verification of flow meters, water meters; establishing an accounting system for water and wastewater volumes; metrological examination of projects of water and wastewater metering units and authorization for operation of water and wastewater metering units; designing and improving water and wastewater metering units; developing the instrumentation pool; providing for the metrological control and supervision over the condition and operation of measuring instruments in the water supply and wastewater disposal systems; training qualified engineers-metrologists.

Key words

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№7|2020

DESIGNING WASTEWATER SYSTEMS

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2020.07.08
UDC 628.311:556.164

Volkov Sergei, Zhitenev A. I., Kurganov Iu. A., Kostenko I. G., IGNATCHIK V. S., Ignatchik S. Iu., Kuznetsova N. V., Seniukovich Mikhail

Substantiation of the method for estimating the climatic parameters of rain showers by the data of the precipitation gauge system (for the discussion)

Summary

The standard procedure of the hydraulic calculation of surface runoff disposal systems, given in CP 32.13330.2018 «Sewerage. External networks and structures», is implemented within the framework of the method of limiting intensities developed about 100 years ago by Professor P. F. Gorbachev, based on the «theory of rain showers», that was subsequently improved. Herewith the rated parameters of rains determined by the results of many years of observations several years ago were used as initial data. Due to climate change, the need for updating local climate constants is obvious; however, this cannot be implemented in each region due to the lack of self-recording rain gauges or due to the small amount of information accumulated. Using the example of St. Petersburg, an experimental substantiation of the method for accelerated estimation of the climatic parameters of rain showers according by the data of a system of 34 precipitation gauges was carried out. It is established that the revealed rainfall patterns over 5 years do not contradict the classical theory. Moreover, in the interval of periods of a single excess of p > 10 years, their validity is the highest compared to other methods due to a more representative sample.

Key words

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№7|2020

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2020.07.07
UDC 628.356.5

Kevbrina M. V., Novikov S. N.

Method of analyzing the operation of secondary settlers with the purpose of the optimization (for the discussion)

Summary

According to the results of laboratory tests on determining the sedimentation rate of sludge mixture particles in aeration tanks of wastewater treatment facilities, the curves of the gravitational mass flow, calculated in two ways, were plotted. Through the example of sludge mixture in the experimental aeration tank at the Lyuberetskie wastewater treatment facilities in Moscow, a method for analyzing the operation of secondary settlers State Point Analysis, based on the theory of mass flows, is presented. This method provides for estimating the operation of secondary settlers with the purpose of making an operational decision to optimize their operation. «Dry matter load on the surface of secondary settlers» indicator is proposed to be introduced into the practice of operating secondary settlers as another tool for the control of their operation. This parameter shows the amount of dry matter of the sludge mixture in the aeration tanks that is supplied per unit surface of the secondary settlers per hour, and corresponds to the incoming mass flow. The dependence of the concentration of suspended solids in the effluent on the dry matter load and sludge index is given. By changing the dry matter load on the surface of the secondary settlers the standard quality of effluent in terms of suspended solids can be ensured.

Key words

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№7|2020

ENERGY CONSERVATION

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2020.07.09
UDC 628.12+621.65

Usachev A. P.

Backup of a pump control system with a variable-speed drive

Summary

Providing for backup of a pump with a variable-speed electric drive in emergency modes of stopping the pumping unit at water and wastewater pumping stations is considered. Backup is ensured by switching the pump to operation «From mains» (without a variable-speed drive), or by switching on another pump to operation «From mains» with automatic throttling of the slide valve by pressure. Theoretical aspects and practical implementation of the proposed schemes are given. The above schemes of the automatic backup input have been tested in practice and provide for the solutions of many problems while using a variable-speed drive at pumping stations, first thing at heating pumping stations, where any interruption of heat carrier recycling is often unallowable.

Key words

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