DOI 000000
UDC 628.221
IGNATCHIK V. S., Ignatchik S. Iu., Kuznetsova N. V., Zhitenev A. I., Kostenko I. G., Kurganov Iu. A., Volkov Sergei, Seniukovich Mikhail
Study of the storm runoff mechanism (for discussion)
Summary
For the hydraulic calculation of surface runoff disposal networks in SP 32.13330.2018 «Sewerage. External Networks and Structures», a technique is applied that implements the method of «limiting intensities». Despite its notability and widespread use in practice, a number of authors point to a limited area of its use. However, there are no results of a quantitative assessment of the errors of this method in the technical literature. For this reason, the analysis of the degree of influence of the accepted assumptions on the results of hydraulic calculations was carried out. It has been established that with certain ratios of other factors, the use of the «limiting intensities» method can result in an underestimation (from 1.2 to 1.7 times) of the calculated wastewater flow rates. Taking into account the results obtained, two directions of work are formulated to eliminate the consequences of flooding in sewer basins. The first direction provides for the introduction of engineering measures aimed at increasing the reliability and efficiency of the sewer system operation, the second – the improvement of the construction regulations that exclude the creation of problem situations in the future.
Key words
drainage area , method of limiting intensities , climatic parameters , force of rain , rainfall duration , surface runoff disposal systems , travel time

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2020.07.08 UDC 628.311:556.164
Volkov Sergei, Zhitenev A. I., Kurganov Iu. A., Kostenko I. G., IGNATCHIK V. S., Ignatchik S. Iu., Kuznetsova N. V., Seniukovich Mikhail
Substantiation of the method for estimating the climatic parameters of rain showers by the data of the precipitation gauge system (for the discussion)
Summary
The standard procedure of the hydraulic calculation of surface runoff disposal systems, given in CP 32.13330.2018 «Sewerage. External networks and structures», is implemented within the framework of the method of limiting intensities developed about 100 years ago by Professor P. F. Gorbachev, based on the «theory of rain showers», that was subsequently improved. Herewith the rated parameters of rains determined by the results of many years of observations several years ago were used as initial data. Due to climate change, the need for updating local climate constants is obvious; however, this cannot be implemented in each region due to the lack of selfrecording rain gauges or due to the small amount of information accumulated. Using the example of St. Petersburg, an experimental substantiation of the method for accelerated estimation of the climatic parameters of rain showers according by the data of a system of 34 precipitation gauges was carried out. It is established that the revealed rainfall patterns over 5 years do not contradict the classical theory. Moreover, in the interval of periods of a single excess of p > 10 years, their validity is the highest compared to other methods due to a more representative sample.
Key words
surface runoff disposal system , method of limiting intensities , climatic parameters , force of rain , rainfall duration

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.07.07 UDC 628.221
Volkov Sergei, Zhitenev A. I., Rublevskaya O. N., Kurganov Iu. A., Kostenko I. G., IGNATCHIK V. S., Ignatchik S. Iu., Kuznetsova N. V., Seniukovich Mikhail
Specific features of estimating calculated rainfall rates with account
Summary
The analysis of official data resources shows that the distribution of extreme rainfall over the territory is carried out with account of the microclimatic features of the area. To estimate the degree of reliability of such patterns within megalopolises, experimental studies were carried out, where the wastewater disposal system of St. Petersburg was assumed as an experimental base; a network of 34 automatic rain gauges recording with an interval of 5 minutes was assumed as a measuring instrument, and a base was used as experimental information, i. e., a measurement data base for six years. As a result of the research, it has been established that a microclimate is formed in the urban environment that differs from the climate outside it. Besides, on a megacity scale, there are microclimatic zones where the dependences of precipitation intensities on their frequency can differ significantly. In this case, the differences begin to manifest at periods p of onetime excess of the calculated rainfall intensity from 1.5–2 years, whereas at lower values, no differences have been found. The result obtained is consistent with the research data obtained by other authors, who experimentally established that the amount of extreme rainfall increased in those areas of megacities, as a rule, historical ones, where fewer green spaces are located, and, accordingly, a higher degree of surface overheating in summer is recorded.
Key words
rainfall intensity , surface runoff disposal system , climatic parameters , rainfall duration , flooding , microclimate

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.04.05 UDC 628.221
Volkov Sergei, Zhitenev A. I., Rublevskaya O. N., Kurganov Iu. A., Kostenko I. G., IGNATCHIK V. S., Ignatchik S. Iu., Kuznetsova N. V., Seniukovich Mikhail
Evaluation of the effectiveness of mechanisms for eliminating flooding of urbanized areas with surface runoff
Summary
Flooding of urbanized areas happens quite often, while, during periods of heavy rains, water rises to the surface flooding streets and basements. Flooding occurs for different reasons or due to their combination. The list of measures to reduce the flooding rate has been worked out in the world practice. These include measures aimed at reducing the runoff coefficient of drainage areas, as well as increasing the spare regulating capacities of the networks and sewers, etc. However, evaluating their effectiveness in the Russian Federation is complicated by the fact that the standard method of hydraulic calculation provides for taking into account the values of the periods of onetime excess of the calculated rainfall rates p that indicates the overflow rate in the networks. However, this method does not determine the rate pp of area flooding that results from the water spills. Through the example of St. Petersburg, a calculation method is presented for determining the average annual number of floods, as well as the results of evaluating the effectiveness of measures aimed at reducing them.
Key words
drainage area , surface runoff disposal system , climatic parameters , force of rain , rainfall duration , travel time , flooding

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.07.07 UDC 628.221
Volkov Sergei, Luk’ianchuk Maksim, Zhitenev A. I., Rublevskaya O. N., Erofeev Vasilii, IGNATCHIK V. S., Ignatchik S. Iu., Kuznetsova N. V.
Systems for the removal of surface runoff: problems and solutions (for discussion)
Summary
For the hydraulic calculation of storm sewer networks removing surface runoff in our country, the concept of immediate removal of runoff formed as a result of rainfall has been used for more than 60 years. With this aim, the method of «limiting intensities» has been used up nowadays, implemented with the help of the methods laid down in Norms and Technical Conditions for Design 14156, SNiP IIG.662, SNiP II3274, SNiP 2.04.0385, SP 32.13330. 2012, CP 32.13330.2018. If we continue to be guided by this concept, then in order to adapt the operated systems to the current conditions, in most cases relaying all the networks with larger pipe diameters would be required, which is practically impossible not only from the economic, but also from the technical and social point of view. In the current situation, introducing alternative solutions for adapting storm sewer networks is needed, which, in comparison with relaying all the networks, are more economically justifiable. Among them, noteworthy are the solutions that provide for the detention and retention of water in sewers, and for reducing runoff coefficients. The effectiveness of these solutions is estimated using numerical modeling and analytical calculations.
Key words
drainage area , method of limiting intensities , climatic parameters , force of rain , rainfall duration , surface runoff disposal systems , travel time

