UDC 628.221 DOI 10.35776/VST.2023.03.07
Volkov Sergei, Luk’ianchuk Maksim, Zhitenev A. I., Kuz’min Valentin, Rublevskaya O. N., Hyamyalyainen M. M., Gvozdev V. A., Erofeev Vasilii, Kostenko I. G., IGNATCHIK V. S., Ignatchik S. Iu., Kuznetsova N. V., Seniukovich Mikhail
Methods and results of estimating calculated rain parameters for the surface runoff disposal systems of SaintPetersburg Part 1. For hydraulic calculations while designing
Summary
Municipal systems of surface runoff disposal must be adapted to the conditions of the changed climate with account of the local conditions and specific circuit designs. In accordance with the world practice, one of the stages of the work package in this area is the justification of the calculated rain parameters for the considered climate area. At the same time, to solve design problems, it is enough to adjust the standard climatic parameters. When substantiating their calculated values, the method of adaptation of the complex parameter A is applied to the group of scaling methods. It was established that for St. Petersburg, the dynamics of change in parameter A for the period ∆τ = 50 years was 9.1%. The result obtained using this method was verified by comparing it with the results of other studies: cited in the third estimation report on climate changes and their consequences in the Russian Federation; obtained by the FSBI «Main Geophysical Observatory named after A. I. Voeikov»; obtained by the classical method that provided for processing of the primary experimental information.
Key words
surface runoff disposal system , flooding , adaptation measures , calculated parameters of rains , rain profiles

UDC 628.221 DOI 10.35776/VST.2023.04.07
Volkov Sergei, Luk’ianchuk Maksim, Zhitenev A. I., Kuz’min Valentin, Rublevskaya O. N., Gvozdev V. A., Erofeev Vasilii, Kostenko I. G., IGNATCHIK V. S., Ignatchik S. Iu., Kuznetsova N. V., Seniukovich Mikhail
Methods and results of estimating calculated rain parameters for the surface runoff disposal systems of SaintPetersburg Part 2. For hydraulic calculations in simulation
Summary
Urban surface runoff disposal systems need to be adapted to the changing climate with account of local conditions and schematic design features. In line with the world practice, one of the stages of the works in this area is the substantiation of the calculated parameters of rain for the considered climatic region. At the same time, to fulfill the design tasks adjusting the specified climatic parameters will be sufficient. However, justifying the solutions on the upgrade of the drainage systems using computational models, substantiating the profiles of calculated rains constituting the graphs of the temporal variations of their intensity is needed. While substantiating these profiles, the following requirements were taken into account: the maximum 10minute amount of precipitation that can cause flooding in the wastewater disposal networks; the accumulative amount of atmospheric precipitation during 1 hour that can cause flooding in the tunnel sewers. It has been established that under these requirements, the temporal variation of the rain intensity representing the design rain profile can be expressed as a continuous analytical function with two parameters: i_{0} – the maximum instantaneous rain intensity (mm/h) and the empirical parameter φ (min^{–1}). It has been experimentally determined that for St. Petersburg, for example, with a return period of p = 1 year, φ = 0.1837 min^{–1}, i_{0} = 40.21924 mm/h.
Ключевые слова
surface runoff disposal systems , flooding , adaptation measures , calculated parameters of rains , rain profiles

UDC 628.221 DOI 10.35776/VST.2023.06.05
Volkov Sergei, Luk’ianchuk Maksim, Zhukova Anastasiia, Zhitenev A. I., Kuz’min Valentin, Rublevskaya O. N., Gvozdev V. A., Erofeev Vasilii, Kostenko I. G., IGNATCHIK V. S., Ignatchik S. Iu., Kuznetsova N. V., Fes’kova A. Ia.
Methods and results of estimating calculated rain parameters for the surface runoff disposal systems of SaintPetersburg Part 3. For hydraulic calculations in designing and modeling with account of the uneven distribution of rain intensities areally
Summary
Municipal surface runoff disposal systems need to be adapted to the changing climate with account of local conditions and schematic design features. In line with the world practice, one of the stages of the research in this area is the substantiation of the calculated parameters of rain for the considered climatic region. Herewith, to solve design problems, adjusting the standard climatic parameters is sufficient, whereas, to solve the problems related to the justification of decisions on the upgrade of wastewater disposal systems using calculation models, justifying the design rain profiles constituting graphs of the intensity variations over time is required. In addition, justifying the calculated parameters of rains with account of the spatial variability is needed. Beyond that, for large areas, the design rainfall parameters must be converted to average values. In world practice, this is done by multiplying the average rainfall intensity for a given duration, frequency and area by the appropriate reduction factor – areal reduction factor (ARF). In domestic practice, while designing, a similar reduction factor is also used called a correction factor that takes into account the uneven rainfall areally. However, the reliability of the values of these correction factors is very doubtful, since, for example, with a runoff area of less than 4km^{2}, the values are available only for the conditions of Moscow, whereas the origin of the values for a runoff area of more than 4km^{2} is not known. For these reasons, in St. Petersburg, along with the assessment of the actual and prospective parameters of calculated rains used in design and modeling, the regularities of the distribution of rain intensity areally were additionally determined. As a result of the research, the hypothesis that areal and point precipitation have the same probability of exceeding was confirmed, as well as the type and parameters of the dependence were substantiated for estimating the actual values of the correction factors that take into account the unevenness of rainfall areally.
Key words
surface runoff disposal systems , flooding , adaptation measures , calculated parameters of rains , rain profiles

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.07.07 UDC 628.221
Volkov Sergei, Zhitenev A. I., Rublevskaya O. N., Kurganov Iu. A., Kostenko I. G., IGNATCHIK V. S., Ignatchik S. Iu., Kuznetsova N. V., Seniukovich Mikhail
Specific features of estimating calculated rainfall rates with account
Summary
The analysis of official data resources shows that the distribution of extreme rainfall over the territory is carried out with account of the microclimatic features of the area. To estimate the degree of reliability of such patterns within megalopolises, experimental studies were carried out, where the wastewater disposal system of St. Petersburg was assumed as an experimental base; a network of 34 automatic rain gauges recording with an interval of 5 minutes was assumed as a measuring instrument, and a base was used as experimental information, i. e., a measurement data base for six years. As a result of the research, it has been established that a microclimate is formed in the urban environment that differs from the climate outside it. Besides, on a megacity scale, there are microclimatic zones where the dependences of precipitation intensities on their frequency can differ significantly. In this case, the differences begin to manifest at periods p of onetime excess of the calculated rainfall intensity from 1.5–2 years, whereas at lower values, no differences have been found. The result obtained is consistent with the research data obtained by other authors, who experimentally established that the amount of extreme rainfall increased in those areas of megacities, as a rule, historical ones, where fewer green spaces are located, and, accordingly, a higher degree of surface overheating in summer is recorded.
Key words
rainfall intensity , surface runoff disposal system , climatic parameters , rainfall duration , flooding , microclimate

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.04.05 UDC 628.221
Volkov Sergei, Zhitenev A. I., Rublevskaya O. N., Kurganov Iu. A., Kostenko I. G., IGNATCHIK V. S., Ignatchik S. Iu., Kuznetsova N. V., Seniukovich Mikhail
Evaluation of the effectiveness of mechanisms for eliminating flooding of urbanized areas with surface runoff
Summary
Flooding of urbanized areas happens quite often, while, during periods of heavy rains, water rises to the surface flooding streets and basements. Flooding occurs for different reasons or due to their combination. The list of measures to reduce the flooding rate has been worked out in the world practice. These include measures aimed at reducing the runoff coefficient of drainage areas, as well as increasing the spare regulating capacities of the networks and sewers, etc. However, evaluating their effectiveness in the Russian Federation is complicated by the fact that the standard method of hydraulic calculation provides for taking into account the values of the periods of onetime excess of the calculated rainfall rates p that indicates the overflow rate in the networks. However, this method does not determine the rate pp of area flooding that results from the water spills. Through the example of St. Petersburg, a calculation method is presented for determining the average annual number of floods, as well as the results of evaluating the effectiveness of measures aimed at reducing them.
Key words
drainage area , surface runoff disposal system , climatic parameters , force of rain , rainfall duration , travel time , flooding

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.11.05 UDC 628.221
Volkov Sergei, Luk’ianchuk Maksim, Zhukova Anastasiia, Zhitenev A. I., Rublevskaya O. N., Erofeev Vasilii, IGNATCHIK V. S., Ignatchik S. Iu., Kuznetsova N. V.
Economic efficiency of measures to provide for the surface runoff disposal systems adaptation to changing climate conditions
Summary
The process of economic justification of measures to provide for the surface runoff disposal systems adaptation to the new operating conditions comes down to solving an optimization problem where the maximum economic effect is assumed as the optimization criterion in the form of the difference between the cost of prevented damage from flooding of territories during the periods of heavy rains and the costs of investment and operating activity. The justification of this approach is obvious, since from a stochastic point of view it is impossible to completely eliminate flooding. Accordingly, the estimation of the effectiveness of adaptation measures should be based on the comparison of costs and benefits. The key elements of such an estimation, along with the justification of effective engineering solutions for adaptation, is the determination of the number of floods for the estimated period of time and the damage expected from them, i. e., the damage function that is the sum of the products of the probabilities of damage and its cost. In the Russian Federation the approach that takes into account the probability of flooding, is unrealizable at the regulatory level, since at the stage of hydraulic calculations, the probability of exceeding the calculated rain intensity is taken into account rather than water outcrop. In addition, in domestic practice, as an engineering measure for the adaptation of wastewater disposal systems, the method of network upgrade is mainly used which is the most expensive one compared to other alternative methods. Therefore, the effectiveness of applying the method of network upgrade in combination with the introduction of elements of a «green» infrastructure and regulation of wastewater flows is analyzed using the example of a pilot wastewater drainage area.
Key words
economic efficiency , drainage area , surface runoff disposal system , flooding , adaptation measures

