Tag:water treatment

№3|2020

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.17.001.4

Strelkov A. K., Egorova Yu. A., Bykova P. G., Nesterenko O. I., Strelkova T. A., Talovyria Larisa

The influence of the ecological state of the water source
on the mode of operation of water

Summary

While studying the water quality of the water source of the city of Samara – the Saratov water reservoir, special attention was paid to the main indicators that influence the choice of chemical treatment: turbidity, permanganate index and color. Seasonal changes in the water quality of the water reservoir require constant adjustment of the chemical dose in order to meet the regulatory requirements to the quality of treated water. The results of the studies of changes in the water quality of the Saratov reservoir at the water abstraction points of the city of Samara for 2017–2019 by turbidity, permanganate index and color are presented. Due to the abnormal temperature differences and onset of autumn flood (end of December 2019 and January 2020), the water quality in the water reservoir dramatically changed in color and permanganate index. It was noted that an increase in these indicators required an increase in the dose of chemicals during the source water purification. The optimal dose of chemicals is selected with Lovibond ET-750 flocculator depending on the composition of the source water. Regular test coagulation allowed maintaining the quality of purified water in accordance with the regulatory requirements of SanPiN 2.1.4.1074-01 «Drinking water. Quality control», except for color and total iron since the values of these indicators were increased within the measurement accuracy.

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№3|2016

WATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.1/.2 (211-17)

Murashev S. V.

Systems of water and wastewater treatment for offshore  and coastal facilities under the conditions of Arctic climate

Summary

The aspects of designing water supply and wastewater treatment systems for offshore Arctic facilities – floating drilling units, platforms and terminals are considered. Owing to the special conditions of operating floating drilling units in Arctic marine during long ice seasons a number of additional requirements to the water treatment systems shall be taken into consideration. Among them is reduction on the use of tankers-water carriers and of the fresh water reserve at the offshore facilities inter alia by abandoning the discharge of grey wastewater after proper treatment into the sea. Designing floating facilities of special purpose with the use of advanced small-scale and efficient systems of water purification and wastewater treatment – life-support vessels that is a separate trend in shipbuilding has been suggested and justified. Life-support vessels can be used for water transportation and waste disposal or as seasonal water and wastewater treatment systems for different purposes including emergency conditions.

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№9|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.166.085

Vasiliak L. M., SMIRNOV A. D.

Potential use of ultrasound in water disinfection

Summary

Ultrasound has been used long enough in engineering and medicine for diagnostics, visualization of underwater objects, surface cleaning and other systems. Using ultrasonic disinfection as a main or additional technology is impractical because of the long exposure time, high energy consumption and lack of regulatory documents. To improve the efficiency of disinfection equipment the manufacturers suggest additional ultrasonic water treatment in combination with oxidi­zers and UV irradiation. The data on possible use of ultrasonics both as an additional disinfection method and method of improving the efficiency of traditional technology from the point of view of the concept of establishing numerous barriers during disinfection is presented. Different types of ultrasonic effect for using in water disinfection systems are considered. Ultrasound provides for the extremely low disinfection efficiency compared to other traditional technologies, therefore it is not used as an independent method. Ultrasonic water treatment improves the efficiency of oxidation technologies. Combined action of ultrasonics and UV irradiation does not have any synergistic effect. For natural water and effluent after treatment according to the operating standards the standard UV dosages are sufficient to ensure meeting the mic­robiological standards. Additional ultrasonic treatment is advisable under special conditions. Quartz sleeves can be well cleaned with mechanical systems and chemical wash which is used by all the world leading manufacturers. Due to the particular hazard of ultrasonic contact impact on humans the process of ultrasonic treatment shall completely eliminate such potential effect.

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№2|2018

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161:544.723

Gvozdev V. A., Portnova T. M., Iatsinevich N. V.

Regeneration of the sorption capacity of granulated activated carbon

Summary

The analysis of the Neva River water quality parameters shows the changes in the chemical, biological and physical composition of the water under the environmental impact. Microbial as well as organic chemical pollutants get into the water source. Among all the monitored drinking water quality indicators the customers recognize bad smell at once. Double-layer filter bed (sand and activated carbon) provides for the efficient removal of colloid compounds and finely dispersed particles with low hydraulic size. Herewith the granulated carbon layer traps various organic compounds and water soluble oil products. Owing to the process of chemical compound oxidation (destruction) by ozonation and subsequent treatment with sorbent the chemical substances that flavor water with taste and smell are removed; as well as the color and permanganate value are lowered. When using powdered activated carbon at the filtration facilities achieving the treatment efficiency and estimation of the costs are required because in case chlorine-containing chemical is added to the water immediately after activated carbon is introduced the consumption of disinfection chemicals significantly increases. Thus, it is very important to include a sorption unit with granulated activated carbon to improve the reliability of water treatment. The efficiency of water treatment with granulated activated carbon was tested in K-6 unit at the Southern Waterworks of Saint-Petersburg. The evaluation of the water quality parameters after carbon reactivation was made. Reactivation of Filtrasorb TL 830 activated carbon under the selected process conditions provides for the satisfactory regeneration of the material sorption capacity while preserving its mechanical properties.

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№9|2016

WATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.162:62-278

Andrianov A. P., Pervov A. G., Efremov R. V., Spitsov D. V.

Selection of efficient inhibitors for process flow schemes of the Black Sea water desalination

Summary

Sea water desalination by reverse osmosis has been widely used in drinking and domestic water supply. However, one of the major problems that complicate the operation of desalination facilities is the deposition of low solubility salts in membrane apparatus. In order to control the formation of crystal sediments on membranes different methods are used. Inhibitor dosing to raw water is the most efficient method. A variety of efficient inhibiting agents has been developed. Lately one of the main directions of studies in this field has been new types of phosphorus free and easily biodegradable inhibitors. Tests of six new phosphorus free inhibitors were carried out; the comparison with traditionally used Aminat-K inhibitor is given. The experimental dependencies that allow determining the rate of calcium carbonate scale formation in membrane apparatus are presented. Basing on the obtained results the optimal operational expenditures for sea water desalination were calculated. The study was aiming mainly at comparing the efficiency of newly developed and traditional inhibitors in the process of their use in sea water desalination schemes (by the example of the Black Sea water simulant). The conclusion of the efficiency of the inhibitors used is made on the basis of the minimum operational expenditures for desalination.

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№6|2011

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628162.1

Seliukov Aleksandr, Chekmareva S. V.

Demanganization of River Water

Summary

One of the intractable problems of public utilities for treatment of water from surface sources, an impossibility of water demanganization using the classical scheme of water treatment, is considered. The results of studies of river water aftertreatment for manganese with the help of potassium permanganate at the water supply facilities of the city of Pugachev, Saratov Reg., are presented. In the course of selection of the method of reducing the manganese content the pH value and redox potential of the medium are taken into account. The studies conducted and the testing operation of the system of potassium permanganate dozing show that the treatment using this reagent ensures the residual content of manganese in potable water meeting the specified requirements.

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№09|2015

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.166

Zhuravkova I. V.

Import substitution in full play

Summary

According to the resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation the economic model of the country development shall be restructured to provide for the import substitution of the technologies applied in strategically significant branches using internal sources. «Nevskii Crystal» Research and Production Company has developed and manufactured a wide assortment of electrolyzers for produ­cing and dosing low concentrated electrolytic sodium hypochlorite. The units conform fully to the international standards.

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№8|2021

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.08.03
UDC 628.1/.3:697.911

Zoubov M. G., Obukhov Dmitrii, Diachuk Sergei

Engineering examination as the basis for the successful reconstruction of natural and waste water treatment facilities

Summary

During the operation of natural and waste water treatment facilities, conditions may change in relation to those accepted in design decisions. As a result, the treatment facilities cease to perform the functions assigned to them. Before the reconstruction of such water treatment and wastewater treatment facilities, engineering and technical examination is the basis for making the right technical and technological decisions. The examination involves a decision-making algorithm aimed at achieving the goals set while designing.Through the example of one of the food industry enterprises, the authors considered the positive impact of an extended engineering examination for the acception of correct technical and technological solutions that provide the proper quality of wastewater treatment with optimal capital investments.

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№12|2021

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.12.04
UDC 628.166:541.135

Pchel'nikov I. V., Nguen Tkhi Tuan Z’ep, FESENKO L. N.

Study of the current waveform effect on the formation of cathode deposits during direct electrolysis
Part 2. Electrolysis of sea water

Summary

Sodium chloride is a raw material for the production of sodium hypochlorite; however, the cost of its purchase and delivery is up to 25–30% of the total cost of the disinfectant produced. An alternative raw material for the production of sodium hypochlorite can be chlorides present in natural mineral water, e. g., underground, sea and oceanic water. Mineral water will be the raw material for obtaining sodium hypochlorite solution of a sufficiently high concentration that can then be added to the treated water. The experience of operating CHLOREFS units manufactured by EKOFES SPE LLC showed that the main problem related to the electrolyzer operation reliability is associated with the formation of deposits of hardness salts – calcium carbonate on the surface of the cathodic electrode, and magnesium hydroxide on the surface of the electrolyzer cathodes. This results in a negative electrolysis regime, an increase in voltage, overheating and warping of the electrode system, destruction of the oxide coating of the anodes, etc. The results of studies of direct electrolysis by direct and reverse current of salt water of the South Vietnam Sea are presented. During the tests the effect of reverse current in comparison with direct current on the reduction of the formation of insoluble substances on the cathodes of the electrolyzer was estimated, and besides, the electrolysis process parameters were determined. The current chlorine yield for seawater was above 100% in the reverse mode with a current density of 100 A/m2.

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№10|2021

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.10.02
UDC 628.166:541.135

Pchel'nikov I. V., Nguen Tkhi Tuan Z’ep, FESENKO L. N.

Study of the current waveform effect on the formation of cathode deposits during direct electrolysis.
Part 1. Electrolysis of fresh water

Summary

During the electrochemical processing of chloride-containing natural water in a membraneless electrolyzer, salts of hypochlorous acid are formed that are exhibiting oxidizing properties. This process is widely used for the production of sodium hypochlorite disinfectants. The raw material for the production of sodium hypochlorite can be not only artificially prepared saline solutions, but also natural mineral water containing chlorides. The electrolysis of such solutions results in the formation of insoluble calcium and magnesium salts at the cathode of the electrolyzer thus inhibiting mass transfer in the interelectrode space and the occurrence of emergency situations. The first part of the article presents the results of studies of direct electrolysis of fresh water with constant and reverse current in Dong Hoi city, Republic of Vietnam. In the conducted tests the effect of reverse current in comparison with direct current on the reduction of the formation of insoluble substances at the cathodes of the electrolyzer was determined. The experiments have shown the advantage of reverse current over direct current. So, during the electrolysis with reverse current for a period of up to 6 hours, the amount of deposits on the electrodes did not increase, however, with direct current the deposits accumulated from the very beginning of the electrolysis process. This is due to the fact that the precipitate formed during the cathodic half cycle is dissolved during the anodic half cycle by acid, a product of water oxidation. The current output of chlorine for tap water was no more than 23% with a current density of 100 A/m2.

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№10|2011

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.169.7:614.77

Khrenov K. E., KOZLOV M. N., GRACHEV V. A., Shchegolkova N. M., Vanyushina A. Ya.

Investigation of properties of new soils produced from water sludge

Summary

The properties of soil produced from the sludge generated at the water treatment plants have been investigated. A new method of soil production has been developed. Biotesting with the use of two biotests (Ceriodaphniaand Infusoria) revealed some admissible soil toxicity while water stability was assessed as excellent. The comprehensive physical analysis showed that the addition of water sludge into loam soil enhances active processes of structure formation. The soil is well structured, resistant to unfavorable mechanical, physical and chemical impacts including acid-based solutions. The presented soil is recommended for grassplot formation as well as for biofuel crop cultivation. The grassplots formed with the new type of soil showed rather high resistance to drying up during the extremely hot summer of 2010.

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№08|2015

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 504.06

Skryabin A. Yu., Popovian G. V., Tron' I. A.

Microalgae as a factor affecting the organoleptic properties of the Don River water

Summary

Stringent hygienic requirements are set to the drinking water quality: epidemiologic, radiation and chemical safety, favorable organoleptic properties. The applicable regulatory documents control a number of parameters; however, other factors exist that affect the water safety and potability. In particular, among these are the amount and species composition of microalgae in water. Massive microphyte growth in surface water sources during water bloom raises serious difficulties in the process of water treatment and severely affects such regulated parameters as color and taste. The laboratory workers at «Rostovvodokanal» JSC have made observations of the microphyte growth in the Don water for 34 years. During this period the evolution of the species composition of microalgae in the Don River has been investigated. It was proved that certain cyanobacteria species affect the organoleptic properties of water. The efficiency of different water treatment methods of odor strength reduction is considered. For the operating water treatment plants the method of water odor strength reduction with the use of rapid gravity filter by natural aeration is suggested.

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№7|2020

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2020.07.04
UDC 628.196

Klebeko Pavel, Romanovskii Valentin

Modified anthracites as effective catalytic materials for deironing of undergroundwater

Summary

The results of the study of modified anthracite as one of the most promising filtering materials that can be used in water treatment for undergroundwater deironing are presented. Anthracite granules were coated with iron oxides by exothermic combustion in solutions in a muffle furnace. Iron-containing sludge from water treatment plants was used as a precursor of iron. The effect of four different reducing agents on the surface-phase composition and properties of modified materials was studied. Using the method of exothermic combustion in solutions anthracite granules were modified with the formation of finely dispersed and crystalline structures of iron oxides on their surface. This had a positive effect on the catalytic ability of the material to underground water deironing. The catalytic properties of the obtained samples and the efficiency of deironing of underground water were investigated.

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№5|2013

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16.069

Kofman V. Ya.

Dissolved-air flotation in water treatment (a review of foreign literature)

Summary

A review of foreign literature on one of the perspective water treatment technologies, i. e. dissolved-air flotation, is presented. The process of dissolved-air flotation provides for decreasing water turbidity, eliminating algae, Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts; whereby, the treatment efficiency is higher compared to sedimentation. The technology ensures efficient removal of low turbidity levels. Overseas, beyond controversy, the tendency of using dissolved-air flotation units for purification of water and wastewater of different origin is increasing.

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№9|2021

LAWS, STANDARDS, NORMATIVES

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.09.04
UDC 006.3:628.1

Egorova Yu. A., Bykova P. G., Talovyria Larisa, Strelkova T. A., Nesterenko O. I.

On the introduction of new sanitary and epidemiological requirements for drinking water supply

Summary

The main source of water supply for the urban district of Samara is the Saratov reservoir. The municipal water treatment facilities were built according to the standard design and intended for clarification and disinfection of moderately polluted water. In recent years, a sharp decrease in the concentration of suspended solids and an increase in the concentration of organic pollutants (mainly of natural origin) have been observed in the water of the source. At low water temperature, high color indices and permanganate index, the need arises for continuous monitoring the optimal doses of chemicals in order to prevent the formation of residual aluminum in the purified water and permanganate index exceeding the MPC values in accordance with SanPiN 2.1.4.1074-01. By Decree of the RF Chief Sanitary Officer No. 3 of January 28, 2021, new sanitary rules and regulations have been approved and effective in the Russian Federation since March 1, 2021: SanPiN 2.1.3684-21 and SanPiN 1.2.3685-21 that require a more stringent approach to the quality of the purified water. The validity period of the current SanPiNs is until March 1, 2027; however, they do not provide for a transitional period for the operators of water supply and wastewater disposal systems that have to arrange and conduct epidemiological (preventive) measures to ensure drinking and domestic water supply meeting the requirements of SanPiN 2.1.3684-21 and SanPiN 1.2.3685-21. The water treatment facilities in Samara in the transition period need upgrade, and some of them need reconstruction. To carry out the research specified in the regulatory documents, updating the equipment of production laboratories and expanding the scope of their accreditation are needed. Equipping accredited laboratories with advanced means of comprehensive monitoring of drinking water quality will improve the efficiency and reliability of the analysis results.

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№10|2013

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.2:546.72/.711

TESLA V. G., ALEKSEEV V. S., Koulakov V. V.

On the criteria of choosing the best available water treatment technology as applied to the Amur water intake (Komsomolsk-on-Amur city)

Summary

While choosing the technology of underground water conditioning it is advisable to be geared to the recommendations in SP 31.13330.2012 «Water supply. Public utilities», «Classifier of natural water treatment technologies» (NII VODGEO, 2000) as well as to minimizing the environmental impact. It is shown that intraformational treatment of underground waters meets to the maximal extent the requirements to the best available technologies and domestic standards developed on the basis of ISO 14000 International Standard. By the example of the Amur water intake of Komsomolsk-on-Amur city the complete conformity of the designed technology of intraformational iron and manganese compounds removal to the above-mentioned criteria with account of the specific water composition is noted. In discussing the specific features of underground water chemical treatment the attention is drawn to the inadmissibility of large-scale use of precursor – potassium permanganate for water conditioning. It is suggested to evaluate additionally the water treatment technology with account of the economical efficiency.

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№5|2016

LAWS, STANDARDS, NORMATIVES

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UDC 628.1.033:351.777

Samburskii G. A., Plitman S. I., Pestov S. M., Tulakin A. V., Ampleeva G. P.

On some problems in water treatment related to the implementation  of «On water supply and wastewater disposal» Act

Summary

A number of problems of regulating the process of drinking water purification for public water supply systems related to the water quality meeting the established hygienic requirements and performance targets are considered. It is shown that water and wastewater providers using the methods of risk assessment can optimize the measures aimed at improving the quality of drinking water in the context of choosing the implementation dates and priorities. It is noted that measuring water quality parameters without any consi­deration for procedural and sampling errors may not reflect actual concentrations of pollutants in drinking water in public water supply systems; whereas five-fold exceeding maximum permissible concentrations is possible which cont­ravenes both drinking water hygienic standards and criteria of significant drinking water quality deterioration.

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№10|2016

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.3

Samburskii G. A., Pestov S. M., Plitman S. I., Tulakin A. V., Ampleeva G. P., Tsyplakova G. V., Koshenkov V. N.

On some problems in chemical treatment of drinking water

Summary

Stated requirements to the delivery of information on the technology and raw material used in the production of chemicals will provide for minimizing the threat of toxic substances transfer to the treated water. In the process of comparative evaluation of chemicals it is recommended to pay attention to the substantial part of the expert report related to the maximum permissible dosages (concentrations) substantiated with account of the criteria of acceptable health hazard. The requirements of Methodology Guidelines 2.1.4.1060-01 shall be applied to synthetic polyelectrolytes specified not only in the document but also in other hygienic regulations. It is related to the product and its monomers.

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№7|2011

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16/.31.085

Rudnikova G. I., Zelenin A. M.

Water Disinfection Using the UV-Irradiation at Water Treatment Facilities of the City of Angarsk

Summary

For the purpose of improving the barrier function with respect to viruses, parasites and water bacteria at water treatment facilities of Angarsk the station of potable water UV-disinfection was put into operation in 2009. The station’s equipment is located in the building of main facilities block before the vertical mixers. From the first days of operation the high efficiency of the UV-disinfection method was established. The analyses results show the complete inactivation of all water microorganisms and dependence of intensity of lamps radiation on physicochemical properties of river water as well. For the purpose of eliminating this dependence the alternative scheme of water feed is offered: treated water after the filter is delivered to UV-disinfection plants instead of river water.

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№7|2011

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16/.31.085

IVANOV A. S.

Determination of the Minimal Efficient Doze of UV-Irradiation

Summary

The process of study of water for optimal and valid choice of power of the ultraviolet irradiation system is described. The effectiveness of water treatment by ultraviolet irradiation depending on the content of suspended particles in water is shown. A diagram of the dependence of performance of ultraviolet disinfection on the water transmission coefficient is presented. The necessity of conduction of the preliminary model ultraviolet irradiation and drawing up of the conclusion before the delivery of equipment to the real object of the customer is substantiated.

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vstmag engfree 200x100 2

Баннер конференции для ВСТ 3

Wasma23 200x100 stand

myproject msk ru

Российская ассоциация водоснабжения и водоотведения

souz ingenerov 02