Tag:coagulation

№8|2011

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.162.53:66.081

Skryabin A. Yu., Pedashenko D. D., Bozhko L. N., Popovian G. V.

Influence of Coagulation Treatment of Water on Equilibrium of Carbonic Acid Forms

Summary

Results of the determination of stability indexes (a saturation index, emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere) of the Don water using the results of complete chemical analyses of water made by laboratories at water supply stations are presented. On the example of the Rostov water supply system the advantage of the use of coagulants polyDADMAC both independently and together with aluminium polyoxichloride AQUA-AURAT™10 which don’t increase (comparing with traditional treatment with aluminum sulphate) the corrosive activity of treated water and don’t favour the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is shown.

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№8|2021

WATER RECYCLING SYSTEMS

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.08.04
UDC 628.179.2

Litvinenko Viacheslav, Lanovoi Andrei, Obukhov Dmitrii

Implementation of a recycling water supply system at a plant for the production of mineral fertilizers

Summary

The introduction of recycling water supply is an important factor in reducing the negative impact of industrial enterprises on the environment. In 2007, experts from ECOS Group built and commissioned wastewater treatment facilities for a mineral fertilizer plant. Commissioning was preceded by full-fledged pilot tests in a pilot plant with a capacity of 1 m3/h. Preliminary pilot tests are a smart move in the implementation of projects for the construction of wastewater treatment facilities. The proposed process solutions were tested in the pilot plant: dosages of chemicals, subsequent clarification, filtration and sorption in gravity filters. As a result, the process parameters and the main indicators of the quality of raw wastewater were determined. The filtration efficiency in a ERSH filter was up to 80%. The necessity of raw wastewater balancing and the use of a biological treatment stage is shown. Upon completion of the work, the customer received reliable, easy-to-work treatment facilities; effluent discharge into the municipal sewer was ceased and the water consumption for the production needs was reduced.

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№5|2022

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.05.05
UDC 628.3(628.345.1)

Arduanova Anna, Glushankova I. S.

Choosing coagulants and flocculants for the local treatment of wastewater of pulp and paper industry

Summary

The results of studies on removing lignosulfonates, suspended solids and sulfur-containing compounds from pulp and paper industry wastewater by chemical treatment are presented. As chemicals the following coagulants were studied: alumina, ferrous sulfate, iron (III) sulfate, and flocculants Praestol and RusFloc, that differ in charge, molar mass, and ionic activity. In the course of the experiment, it was found that the most effective removal of lignosulfonates and sulfur-containing compounds from wastewater proceeded in the presence of ferrous sulfate coagulant and Praestol 810 cationic flocculant. In this case, easily settling thickened sludge is formed and the efficiency of removing sulfide ion is 92%, the color of water decreases 3–4 times. The optimal dose of the coagulant as metal ion is 300 mg/dm3, the dose of the flocculant is 1.5 mg/dm3. Comparison of the activity of RusFloc cationic flocculants in terms of settling time, sludge layer thickness, clarified water COD, showed that the use of RusFloc 504 cationic flocculant is most effective for the coagulation of wastewater containing lignosulfonates. The optimal dose of the chemical was 5 mg/dm3. Studies on wastewater treatment by coagulation-flocculation in the presence of ferrous sulfate coagulant and RusFloc 504 flocculant at pH 8.5 showed 70% reduction of COD of organic compounds – lignosulfonates, and more than 90% color. On the basis of the conducted studies, the choice of conditions and effective chemicals for the local treatment of pulp and paper industry wastewater is substantiated.

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№3|2021

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.03.06
UDC 628.345

Alekseyev E. V.

The use of «coasorption» concept while describing the effect of coagulants on the wastewater aqua systems (for discussion)

Summary

The widespread use of chemical coagulation in purification of natural water and industrial wastewater is due, on the one hand, to the complex chemical composition and phase-disperse state of their aqua systems, and on the other hand, to the multifactorial effect of coagulants on them. The main mechanisms of interaction between coagulants and pollutants are considered through the example of industrial wastewater treatment containing organic substances (surfactants and synthetic dyes). The physicochemical term «coagulation» reflects only one of the mechanisms of the effect of coagulants on pollutants. The currently accepted process parameters «dose of coagulant» and «specific dose of coagulant» do not reflect the variety of interactions of pollutants with coagulant salts either, and are not linked to the result of coagulation. This makes it difficult to describe the collective effect of physicochemical processes while adding coagulants to the treated water and to quantify it. The solution to the problem is possible introducing the concept of «coasorption» that determines the multifactorial origin of the interaction of coagulants and pollutants in the processes of wastewater treatment by coagulation; and the process parameter «specific coasorption» that establishes a quantitative relationship between the concentrations of pollutants in raw wastewater and effluent with a dose of coagulant. The specific coasorption functions are graphically presented in the form of coasorption isotherms for two types of surfactants and synthetic dyes. Based on the results of the analysis of the features of the isotherms, it is shown that they reflect different mechanisms of interaction between coagulants and pollutants. The use of coasorption as a technological concept provides for identifying the mechanisms of interaction of pollutants with a coagulant and establishing the best conditions for the coagulation process. The functional description of the coasorption isotherms allows extrapolating the results of trial coagulation in a wide range of pollutant concentrations. The practical importance of specific coasorption isotherms provides for determining the dosages of chemicals during coagulation of water based on the initial concentration of pollutants and effluent standard.

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№5|2016

ADVANCED EQUIPMENT

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UDC 628.321

Zhadan A. V., Kasatochkin A. S., Larionov S. Iu., Panteleev A. A., Riabchikov B. E., Shilov M. M.

Testing VTI-M pilot high-rate lamella clarifier with microsand

Summary

In order to test and adjust in pilot mode the technology of enhanced water coagulation a VTI-M pilot high-rate clarifier with microsand was designed. The installation with a capacity of up to 30 m3/h is designed for the purification of surface, storm and waste water. It is constructed in such a way that the purification process can be carried out either with recycling of generated sludge or with the use of fine-grained sandy weighting material. VTI-M clarifier provides for the sustainable water quality that fully meets the requirements to the quality of water supplied to ion exchange desalination.

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№2|2016

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.316.12

Iavtushenko Marina, Larionov S. Iu., Panteleev A. A., Riabchikov B. E., Shilov M. M., Kasatochkin A. S., Zhadan A. V.

Testing IKO-R enhanced coagulation pilot plant

Summary

An experimental plant with a capacity up to 20 m3/h was developed for enhanced coagulation of surface and waste water as well as storm water. The treatment process is based on sedimentation of inclusions together with coagulated flocs under the optimal conditions of chemical addition and mixing. To enhance the sedimentation process sludge recycling from the settling tank was provided that ensured the formation of big flocs. Pilot tests of the plant were carried out to evaluate the efficiency of removing suspended solids and phosphorus from the effluent during tertiary treatment at the Podolsk wastewater treatment facilities in the Moscow Area. The capacity of the plant during testing varied from 3 to 15 m3/h. At steady operation of the settling tank no sludge washout was observed. During longer tests the capacity was 8–10 m3/h; in terms of the cross section of the settling tank the specific capa­city (flow rate) was 5–7 m3/(m2·h). Time to reach the steady state conditions was 5–10 minutes. At that the efficiency of phosphorus removal was 80%, permanganate value was reduced by 54% and suspended solids concentration was reduced by 58%.

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№05|2015

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.321

Riabchikov B. E., Larionov S. Iu., Panteleev A. A., Shilov M. M.

The study of enhanced water coagulation with the use of microsand

Summary

The results of the analysis of the present day advanced water coagulation equipment are presented. The results of the study showed that using the systems with sludge recycling and microsand addition was the most efficient solution. Because of the lack of reliable data on the efficiency of the given equipment, operational mode and chemical consumption, experimental units were designed that provided for testing the required modes and significant improving the process. Using sand from a packed column equipped with airlift for wa­shing produced good results. Sand loss was less than 1%. In the process of the experimental studies it was shown that the effect of fast precipitation in the clarifier at high linear water flow rate was possible. However, the use of static chemical mixing systems does not provide for the sustainable unit operation with changing parameters – flow rate, stock solution concentration, and temperature. For that reason the unit was upgraded following Actiflo option with the use of mechanical mixers for mixing with chemicals and sand, however, with sand and sludge separation in the plate column equipped with a pulsation system to improve the wash efficiency. The designed flowsheet of sludge separation into microsand and sludge with the help of a packed column showed significant advantages compared to the system with hydrocyclones. On the basis of the obtained data terms of reference for designing a pilot unit were developed.

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№8|2011

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.345.1.001.2

Getmantsev S. V., Gandurina L. V., Sychev A. V.

Research in Coagulation Properties of AQUA-AURAT™18and Aluminium Sulphate at Independent and Combined Application

Summary

Results of the experimental studies on coagulation of pollutants of various types (suspended substances, dyes and humic substances) with coagulant AQUA-AURAT™18 and aluminium sulphate at combined application depending on their ratio and order of insertion in comparison with composite coagulant AQUA-AURAT™105 are presented. It is shown, that the combined use of aluminium sulphate and AQUA-AURAT™18 at consecutive insertion or in the form of composition intensifies the process of water treatment for suspended and dissolved acid substances (humates and acid dyes) comparing with the independent use of coagulants at a lesser or equal dose. The composite coagulant AQUA-AURAT™105 is more efficient for removal of suspended substances from wastewater than dissolved organic pollutants of acid type.

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№8|2011

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16.065.2 (282.247.33)

Linevich S. N., Breus S. A.

Optimization of Coagulation Water Treatment

Summary

Results of experimental studies on the electrocoagulation treatment of the Don water for organization of the centralized systems of water supply are presented. The electrocoagulation method of natural water treatment in contrast to the reagent method is more ecological and economically efficient. The studies carried out confirm the reasonability of a wider use of electrocoagulation for tap water treatment.

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№5|2016

ПИТЬЕВОЕ ВОДОСНАБЖЕНИЕ

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UDC 628.16.081

Fomina V. F., Fomin A. V.

The experience of operating pressure flotation facilities for the purification of low-turbid colored water of the Vychegda River (on the occasion of 10 years of the startup of pressure flotation facilities
at the water treatment plant of Syktyvkar)

Summary

The results of operating the pressure flotation facilities with a capacity of 65,000 m3/day commissioned in May 2006 at the water treatment plant of Syktyvkar are considered. During 10 years the pressure flotation facilities have been successfully operating and ensuring high-level clarification of drinking water. The analysis of the main water quality indicators after each treatment stage showed that the pressure flotation method had been the most efficient for purification of low-turbid colored water of the Vychegda River. It is stated that during certain seasons color increase higher than 150–200 grades and temperature decrease result in complications with meeting the standard for permanganate oxidizability; therefore more detailed selection of chemical agents and dosage optimization is required. At the optimal coagulation operation mode the method of pressure flotation provides for enhanced water clarification to less than 1 mg/l turbidity which allows using filters as barrier facilities in case of turbidity breakthrough.

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№8|2010

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.162

Getmantsev S. V., Linevich S. N.

Treatment and Disinfection of the Don’s Water at Contact Filters Using the Coagulant SKIF180of the Latest Generation

SUMMARY

The high efficient compact flowchart of treatment and disinfection of the Don’s water has been developed on the basis of experimental and theoretical studies carried out. In the process, mixers, coagulation chambers and sludge blanket clarifiers or settling tanks are eliminated from the scheme. The use of the method of contact coagulation with the high effective coagulant of SKIF™180 mark makes it possible to reduce reagent consumption by 65–70%, to exclude the necessity of primary disinfection of water with chlorine or reduce chlorine consumption to minimum, to ensure aluminum residual in water within the limits of MPC, to stabilize conditions of water treatment and reduce considerably the cost of water treatment.

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№9-1|2011

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.162.15

Skolubovich Yu. L., Voytov E. L., Karmalov A. I., Skolubovich Yu. L.

Treatment and Utilization of Wash Water of High-Rate Filters of Deferrization Stations

Summary

Issues of the intensification of coagulation treatment processes of wash water of the deferrization station’s high-rate filters are considered. Shortcomings of the existing flow chart of treatment and the reuse of wash water of filtration stations are exposed. The scheme of the unit and results of experimental studies for selection of an efficient reagent, treatment and utilization of filters’ wash water are presented. A new technology of reagent clarification and multiple use of deferrization station’s wash water is offered.

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№6|2018

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.2:678.046.36

Савочкин А. Ю., Shilov M. M.

Purification of underground water containing high concentrations of silicon, iron and manganese

Summary

The aspects of purification of underground water containing high concentrations of silicon, iron and manganese are considered. Different forms of silicon present in water are analyzed and the basic physics and chemistry of desilication are presented. The implementation of the technology of comprehensive purification of water containing high concentrations of silicon, iron and manganese is described. Through the example of three opera­ting water treatment plants the negative effect of silicon on de-ironing and demanganation processes is shown. Two factors are accentuated that enhance the negative effect: the presence of organic admixtures in raw water and, possibly, higher degree of polyme­rization. Taking into account the application character of studies this presumption demands further study. The developed techno­logy provides for water purification to drinking standard by every parameter. For the implementation of the technology dosing a great many of five types of chemicals (NaOH, Mg salts, NaClO, coagulant, flocculant) is required as well as large volume of sludge is subject to utilization. For this reason this technology is recommended for use only when an alternative water source is unavai­lable.

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№4|2016

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.33/.35:622

Maksimov E. A., Vasil'ev V. I.

Treatment of mining waters generated during gold ore extraction

Summary

The technologies used for treatment of mining waters generated during extraction of nonferrous and precious metals are considered. An industrial plant was designed that combined a multiple-tray clarifier and chemical treatment of mining water; the optimal operation mode with the aim of reaching the calculated parameters for designing treatment facilities was adjusted. An experimental plant for treatment of mining water at the Kochkar mine in Chelyabinsk Area was designed and tested. Aluminium sulfate, ferrous sulfate, ferric sulphide are recommended for the use as chemical agents. The recommended horizontal water flow velocity in the multiple-tray clarifier is 5–6 mm/s. The duration of water clarification with these velocities is 8-9 minutes, i.e. several times less than the sedimentation period in horizontal sedimentation tanks use in the traditional treatment technology. The suggested plant with the use of multiple-tray clarifiers provides for reducing the capital expenses for the mine treatment facilities compared to the traditional process flow scheme. At that the operation expenditures are reduced by 50–60%.

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№11|2018

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.3

Getmantsev S. V., Sychev A. V., Getmantsev V. S.

Prospects of coagulation water treatment

Summary

Despite the significant progress and increasing popularity of membrane water treatment methods chemical treatment keeps hol­ding tightly its position. One of the most important characteristics of coagulants based on polyaluminium chloride is the basicity. The basicity, all other conditions being equal, determines the dealkylation rate and pH of water subject to coagulation. The value of pH obtained after coagulant hydrolysis, in its turn, determines the zeta potential of colloids present in water and kinetic persistence of the colloid system. During coagulation each type of colloid water pollutants has corresponding optimal pH value. The development of the technology of polyaluminium chloride production from high-purity metallic aluminium by «Aurat» JSC resulted in market launch of EPOKHA™ coagulant trademark with 40–83% basicity. The use of EPOKHA™ provides for choosing an optimal modification of polyaluminium chloride for every customer and every climatic season. Another new product manufactured by «Aurat» OJSC under GranEKO™ trademark is crystalline aluminium chlorhydrate with 65–83% basicity. The concentration of active matter in such product is up to 50% as Al2O3. High basicity provides for using GranEKO™ for the clarification of water with low alkaline reserve eliminating the use of alkalizing agents. An important trend in developing chemical water treatment means is the development of composite chemicals combining inorganic coagulant and organic polyelectrolyte. New composite chemicals of ERCHV™ series present a combination of coagulant based on aluminium salt, polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride and modifying additives that provide for the synergetic effect and storage stability. The variety of characteristics of water subject to treatment and applied process flow schemes require an integrated approach to the problem of pH correction during coagulation by using coagulant with higher or lower basicity and changing the injection point.

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№11|2021

WATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.11.07
UDC 628.33:622.5

Kasperovich Viktoriia

Choosing the chemicals and advanced filter media for enhancing the process of mine water purification

Summary

Currently, the construction of facilities for the purification of mine waters is one of the important measures aimed at preserving surface watercourses and water reservoirs. The amount of mine water discharged into surface water bodies can be reduced by reusing it for complex dedusting in mines, process water supply and other most water-intensive technological processes. One of the effective ways of removing suspended solids and heavy metals from mine water is chemical treatment with high-molecular flocculants that provide for reducing the consumption of inorganic coagulants and enhancing the process of suspended solids and heavy metals precipitation. Pretreatment of mine water upstream contact clarifiers can significantly increase the capacity of existing treatment facilities, stabilize their operation in case of fluctuations in the quality composition and temperature of mine water, and reduce the load on the subsequent stages of filtration in rapid filters. The results of experimental laboratory studies of trial coagulation and flocculation with subsequent filtration in rapid filters using Orefilter B catalytic filtering media, AS sorbent and Extrasorb sorption media, as well as removing (stripping) ammonia from mine water are presented.

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№9|2014

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16

Gandurina L. V.

The use of VPK-402 coagulant for the removal of suspended solids of different origin and dispersiveness from water

Summary

The coagulation ability of VPK-402 organic coagulant in reducing water turbidity determined by fine mineral particles of different origin and dispersiveness is considered. Water coagulation was carried out under laboratory conditions following the pattern: mixing-flocculation-sedimentation. The concentration of suspended solids in water was determined from turbidity; dispersivenes – from particle hydraulic size U0. The studies were carried out with modeling water with turbidity less than 115 mg/l containing mainly fine-dispersed suspension of bentonite clays, kaolin, quartz, calcium carbonate and titanium dioxide with less than 0.2 mm/s hydraulic size. It was found that the hydraulic size of clay suspensions was determined by their swelling capacity in water; whereas for quartz, calcium carbonate and titanium dioxide suspension – by the particle size distribution of the original minerals. The optimal dosage of VPK-402 for clay mineral coagulation does not depend on their dispersive characteristics and equals to 0.5 mg/l, i. e. 5–10 times higher than the coagulant dosages for modeling waters with finely dispersed particles of quartz, titanium dioxide or calcium carbonate. The efficiency of water clarification lowers with the increase of the percentage of particles with less than 0.05 mm/s hydraulic size irrespective of their origin. The results of the Kuban River water purification validated the obtained regularities. The efficiency of using VPK-402 organic coagulant for reducing water turbidity depending on the origin and dispersiveness (hydraulic size) of suspended solids represented by bentonite clay, kaolin, quartz, calcium carbonate and titanium dioxide particles is considered. The obtained results can be used in practice for optimization of water coagulation to remove suspended solids.

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№6|2012

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT

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UDC 628.16/.33

Tourevsky S. M., Konstantinov S. V.

The use of DynaSand self-cleaning filters and Johnson Lamella Separators

Summary

The description of Nordic Water Products AB equipment for water purification and domestic and industrial wastewater treatment is presented. DynaSand self-cleaning filters and Johnson Lamella separators are reliable, efficient and simple in operation; they ensure sustainable high quality treatment of raw water. Contact filtration technology has been a great success in different countries, even when used in adverse climatic conditions with various types of water and wastewater.

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№6|2019

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT

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UDC 628.32

Larionov S. Iu., Panteleev A. A., Riabchikov B. E., Shilov M. M., Kasatochkin A. S., Zhadan A. V., Савочкин А. Ю.

Commercial tests of VTI-M high-rate horizontal clarifier enhanced with microsand

Summary

For the adjustment of enhanced coagulation technology on industrial scale a commercial VTI-M plant has been designed for the purification of surface and waste water as well as storm run-off. The design capacity of the plant is up to 300 m3/h. Enhancing the impurity sedimentation process is achieved using fine-grained sand weighting agent. Its subsequent washing off of the sludge is carried out in a pulse column which provides for reducing significantly the amount of secondary waste compared to the known analogues. The development of a new horizontal type clarifier was carried out on the basis of previous laboratory, pilot and experimental-industrial studies. VTI-M commercial clarifier consistently provides for the high quality clarified water that fully meets the requirements for the composition and quality of water supplied for ion-exchange desalination. During the testing period water was supplied for production needs. The use of the equipment package allows obtaining high quality water while reducing the consumption of acids and alkalis which in turn will reduce the discharge of salt waste and thereby reduce the harmful impact on the environment.

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№5|2022

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.05.04
UDC 628.345

Stepanov S. V., Avdeenkov Pavel, Ponomarenko Ol’ga, MOROZOVA K. M.

The results of studies of physical and chemical wastewater treatment of an egg processing enterprise

Summary

The composition of wastewater of an enterprise for advanced processing of chicken eggs characterized by the following parameters: COD 3,600–12,200mg/l, concentration of suspended solids 1,206–3,031 mg/l, BODtotal 2,534–8,540 mg/l, no phosphates, pH 5.4– 13.2 was studied. The concentration of nitrogen compounds, mg/l, varied within the following ranges: ammonium – 0.4–11.4; nitrates – 0–15.3; nitrites – 0–7.3; organic nitrogen – 26.6–89.7. Based on the results of test coagulation, the optimal coagulant chosen was low-basic polyaluminum chloride brand «Aqua-AuratTM-14» with a dose of 125 mg/l as Al2O3. The average treatment efficiency while using this coagulant was, %: for COD – 77.3; for BODtotal – 76.3; for suspended solids – 80.1; for organic nitrogen – 58.7. The lowest concentration of residual aluminum 0.31 mg/l at the initial concentration of 0.29 mg/l corresponded to pH 6.7–7. Unit costs for the coagulant amounted to 9.37 rubles/m3.

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vstmag engfree 200x100 2

Баннер конференции для ВСТ 3

Wasma23 200x100 stand

myproject msk ru

Российская ассоциация водоснабжения и водоотведения

souz ingenerov 02