Tag:ion exchange

№8|2021

WATER RECYCLING SYSTEMS

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.08.04
UDC 628.179.2

Litvinenko Viacheslav, Lanovoi Andrei, Obukhov Dmitrii

Implementation of a recycling water supply system at a plant for the production of mineral fertilizers

Summary

The introduction of recycling water supply is an important factor in reducing the negative impact of industrial enterprises on the environment. In 2007, experts from ECOS Group built and commissioned wastewater treatment facilities for a mineral fertilizer plant. Commissioning was preceded by full-fledged pilot tests in a pilot plant with a capacity of 1 m3/h. Preliminary pilot tests are a smart move in the implementation of projects for the construction of wastewater treatment facilities. The proposed process solutions were tested in the pilot plant: dosages of chemicals, subsequent clarification, filtration and sorption in gravity filters. As a result, the process parameters and the main indicators of the quality of raw wastewater were determined. The filtration efficiency in a ERSH filter was up to 80%. The necessity of raw wastewater balancing and the use of a biological treatment stage is shown. Upon completion of the work, the customer received reliable, easy-to-work treatment facilities; effluent discharge into the municipal sewer was ceased and the water consumption for the production needs was reduced.

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№11|2021

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.11.04
UDC 628.472.37:550.461:550.424

KUZMIN V. V., Boldyrev Kirill, Safonov Aleksei

Hydrogeochemical assessment of the sorption properties of heavy metals in the areas of the impact of solid waste landfills on groundwater

Summary

The fundamentals of the method for predicting the spread of heavy metals in the areas of groundwater pollution by leachate from solid municipal waste landfills are stated. The analysis of the leachate quality of municipal solid waste landfills and the applicability of statistical and empirical estimates of the sorption coefficient of heavy metals is carried out. The limited applicability of statistical estimates for analyzing the distribution of highly mineralized leachate is shown. Based on the method of geochemical simulation, a model has been developed for determining the exchange coefficients between the dissolved and solid phases, i. e. sorption coefficients. The results of determining the sorption coefficient for a wide range of cations are presented with regard to the conditions of natural water displacement by the leachate from solid waste landfills. The developed method can be used to estimate the impact of municipal solid waste landfills on groundwater quality, to predict the spread of heavy metals in the area of potential waste impact, to carry out works within the framework of EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) and LEPM (List of Environmental Protection Measures), to develop systems for engineering protection of groundwater from pollution. The proposed model can serve as a basis for its further improvement with account of the processes of formation of stable organic metal complexes in leachate and complexation on the hard rocks.

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№11|2021

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.11.05
UDC 550.461:550.424:543.383.2

KUZMIN V. V., Boldyrev Kirill

Hydrochemical modeling of migration of dissolved oil products in groundwater

Summary

A method for predicting the spread of BTEX group oil products (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes) in groundwater based on hydrochemical modeling with account of changes in the redox, acidity or alkalinity of the solution during the biodegradation of oil products is stated. A geochemical model of the biological decomposition of oil products of BTEX group based on modified Mono kinetics with account of the reactions between acceptors, biodegradation products and inorganic components of the solution is presented. Examples of geochemical modeling are given that demonstrate the importance of taking into account the processes associated with the changes in the hydrogeochemical environment in groundwater during the decomposition of hydrocarbons. The developed model can be used to carry out geochemical predictions of the spread of light-end oil products in groundwater, to carry out works within the framework of estimating the environmental impact, and to develop systems for engineering protection of groundwater from oil pollution.

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№9|2012

POWER RESOURCES CONSERVATION

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UDC 628.196

Golovanchikov A. B., Yefremov M. Yu., Doulkina N. A.

Enhancing the removal of hardness and iron ions from water

Summary

The numerical calculation of the problem of determining the concentration of components in the flowing water and in the stationary solid state – ionite granules, is presented. For three cations, namely Ca+2, Mg+2 and Fe+2 subject to removal, the reduced concentrations in ionite and equilibrium concentrations in the treated water are calculated for each component. The calculations made show more than double increase of the surface coefficient of external mass transfer and of the volumetric coefficient of mass transport when the electric field intensity changes from 0 to 100 V/m. With that, the cycle operating time increases due to the increase of ionite exchange capacity use.

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№4|2018

WATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.161.2:66.081

Chernyshev P. I., Kruchinina N. E., Panfilov V. A., Kuzin E. N.

The use of ATM-1 adsorbent-cationite in the processes
of removing metals from natural and waste water

Summary

The relevancy of the task of searching and obtaining new sorbents based on cheap and high production volume raw materials to be used in water and wastewater treatment is noted. The prospects of obtaining sorbent based on «Ogneupory» JSC refractory processing wastes – synthetic brucite is substantiated. The physical and chemical properties of ATM-1 mixed mineral product are given as well as the static and calculated dynamic capacitance of ATM-1 ion-exchange sorbent samples in relation to ions of some heavy metals – iron, copper, nickel, cadmium, chromium (VI), tungsten (VI). The results of the consolidated pilot studies of the material as filter media in the process of iron removal and demanganation of natural water are presented alongside with the results of the laboratory studies of plating waste treatment. The laboratory studies carried out under static conditions showed the efficiency of reducing the concentration of heavy metal concentrations in the samples of wash water of electroplating industry if treated with ATM-1 sorbent. It is assumed that the removal of cadmium, copper, nickel, zinc, iron, manganese ions is caused by both ion exchange phenomena and chemisorption. The results of the undertaken studies speak for the high sorption capacitance of ATM-1 sorbent samples in relation to heavy metal ions. The use of brucite wastes is one of the methods of removing metal ions from water and wastewater. It is noted that obtaining commercial ATM-1 will help to solve the problem of refractory processing wastes utilization and reduce the cost of the product.

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№1|2021

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.01.07
UDC 628.316.12:621.357

Ainetdinov Ravil’, Vasil’ev Aleksei, Kuznetsova Alla

Local facilities for plating wastewater treatment

Summary

The analysis of the operation of the existing facilities for plating wastewater treatment is presented. The results of the upgrade of structures and introduction of a system for reusing plating wastes after treatment are presented. The work was carried out at an operating enterprise in the automotive industry. The designer was given the task of providing for the tertiary treatment of effluents that had passed processing at the neutralization plant in order to return the effluent to the main process cycle. The implementation of the project for designing a system for effluent reusing ensured meeting the regulated indicators of process water for the washing operations of an industrial plating plant.

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№6|2016

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

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UDC 550.41+556.114

Boldyrev Kirill, KUZMIN V. V., KURANOV N. P.

The method of calculating heavy metal release from the layer of water body bottom deposits

Summary

The basics of the method of predicting heavy metal distribution between water and solid phases of bottom deposits in water bodies is outlined. Compared to other models of calculating heavy metal distribution between bottom deposits and void water the developed methodology takes into account the ongoing geochemical processes at the improved level with the use of advanced methods of geochemical modeling. An example of calculating heavy metal distribution under the conditions of the chemical composition of the solution changing with the use of advanced calculation methods in PhreeqC 2.18 program code is presented. The method can be used for the following tasks: geological mapping of the pollution of bottom deposits with heavy metals in water reservoirs and lakes; evaluation of the impact of bottom deposits on the chemical composition of water in water reservoirs and lakes; evaluation of the possible elimination of bottom deposits pollution or their immobilization and other measures of mitigating their impact on the water quality; evaluation of bottom deposits removal during dredging and also for solving the problem of their further utilization; evaluation of the possible instantaneous release of heavy metals from polluted bottom deposits and other emergency situations.

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№5|2022

WATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.05.02
UDC 628.164.081.312.32

Selivanov Oleg, Pikalov Evgenii

Estimation of the effectiveness of using sodium-cation exchange resins in the process of water softening for the operation of heat producing plants

Summary

The results of estimating the effectiveness of removing hardness salts from water by the ion exchange method using various sodium-cation exchange resins with the aim of using softened water to feed heat producing plants are presented. The studies were carried out in an ion exchange pilot plant using a single-stage flow scheme of sodium cationization in laminar conditions. The experiments involved determining the dependence of the softening efficiency on the water flow rate until the resource exhaustion of each of the resins with the subsequent regeneration and repeated studies of the effectiveness at different flow rates. It was established that sodium-cation resins provided for a high degree of removing hardness salts. At the same time, higher results in terms of the softening efficiency and degree of regeneration were obtained with Purolite C100E and Tokem-150 resins. Based on the results of the studies using these trademarks of resin for water softening as part of multi-stage water treatment plants at thermal power plants and boiler houses was proposed.

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№9-2|2011

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.112.23:628.168.4

Tsabilev O. V., Strelkov A. K., Bykova P. G., Zanina Zh. V., Vasiliev V. V.

Treatment of Artesian Water for Domestic Water Supply

Summary

An example of solving the task of improvement of artesian water quality up to normative values with the help of baromembrane technologies is given. A flow chart of water treatment for household needs of a settlement optimal from the ecological and economical points of view is described. The comparative results of the technological calculation of various schemes of water demineralization and softening including the processes of ion exchange, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis are presented.

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№05|2015

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.171:556:661.843

Boldyrev Kirill, Savel'eva E. A., Kapyrin I. V., Rastorguev A. V.

Calculations of the metal sorption parameters by the example of strontium at high sodium nitrate concentrations

Summary

For the proper evaluation of underground water protection a comprehensive analysis of pollutant migration from the pollution source is required. The problem of solution salinity effect on the substance distribution between water and water-bearing material has been insufficiently covered in literature because of the low parametric support of the widely used geochemical models and also because of the imperfection of the applied thermodynamic data bases. In the process of geochemical modeling tabular values of interfacial distribution coefficient are often used. Another approach often used in practice is transferring laboratory measured Kd values to geochemical model. The use of tabular and experimental data on interfacial distribution coefficient without proper correction can result in falsified predictions since the available Kd tabular values for metals in the process of predicting sorption parameters, as a rule, provide for a recommended value only for a definite type of water-bearing material (sand, loam, clay) and (rarely) for one or two water types which is evidently insufficient for the correct choice of Kd coefficient. High solution mineralization reduces sorption of all the components because of the competition for the sorption sections and because of metal ion complexation with the solution components. In the article the difficulties in designing the geochemical model of 90S strontium sorption at high concentrations of dissolved sodium nitrate are considered. Strontium sorption by solid phases was considered in relation to ion exchange and surface complexation. The designed model was verified versus literature data. An algorithm of geochemical modeling of dissolved substances distribution between water and hard rock is recommended.

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№2|2017

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT

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UDC 628.161.2:546.34:544.726.3

Fedorova S. V., Kryzhanovskii A. N.

Lithium removal from underground water by ion exchange method

Summary

Supplying the population of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) with drinking water in harsh environment has been a crucial task. In many Yakut communities there is a need in involving underground water in domestic water supply systems. One of the specific features of the chemical composition of subpermafrost water of the Yakut artesian basin is the presence of lithium in the concentrations significantly exceeding the maximum permissible values. This complicates considerably using this water for drinking water supply. Lithium removal from different solutions and brines for industrial use is reported; whereas the information on water treatment for domestic water supply that provides for lithium concentration decrease is lacking. The results of experimental studies of subpermafrost water treatment in Central Yakutia by ion exchange method that prove the efficiency and possibility of using sodium cycle for decreasing lithium concentrations in subpermafrost water are presented.

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