Tag:sorption

№9|2013

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16.081.32

Samonin V. V., Spiridonova E. A., NEFEDOVA E. D., Portnova T. M., Gvozdev V. A., Podviaznikov M. L.

Water purification with the use of granulated activated carbon at the Southern Waterworks

Summary

The results of multi-year studies show that the water quality of the Neva River is deteriorating in relation to organoleptic properties. To ensure high quality drinking water the advanced water treatment technologies including coagulation, sedimentation, oxidation and adsorption were introduced at the K-6 filter block of the Southern Waterworks. Chemviron Carbon granulated activated carbon was used as sorption medium. It is shown that the use of additional carbon medium at the final stage in the sand filters increases significantly the efficiency of treatment. Sampling units were designed, sampling techniques were developed, and samples of the carbon and water from the filtering sorption medium were taken. By analyzing iodine number and sorption activity for methylene blue of activated carbon and permanganate oxidizability of water the life durability of carbon was determined which under the given operation conditions was 3–3.5 years. The perspectivenes of high-temperature carbon reactivation is shown. Herewith the technical-and-economic assessment of the reactivation cost is 50–60% of the new carbon cost.

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№5|2021

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.05.03
UDC 628.316.12

Strelkov A. K., Stepanov S. V., Panfilova O. N., Arbuzov Aleksandr

Removing heavy metals from effluents with natural and modified clay-containing sorbents

Summary

The results of studies of the sorption of heavy metal ions by clay-containing sorbents from plating effluents are presented. The purpose of the tests carried out in a pilot plant was developing a process scheme for the removal of heavy metal ions from effluents and extraction of the spent sorbent in a precoat cartridge filter with a layer of perlite. The materials used in the tests were as follows: thermally modified sorbent based on natural material, i. e., modified clay, as well as mixed sorbent consisting of montmorillonite, peat and dolomite in a ratio of 5:4:1 without heat treatment. The studies were carried out on eight ions of heavy metals in the low concentration range typical for the effluent coming for tertiary treatment after sedimentation with pH adjustment. The main process parameters of tertiary treatment were: pH 8; the duration of the sorbent contact with the effluent was 90 min, the dose of sorbents was 1–1.6 g/l. The separation of the spent sorbent from the effluent was executed in two stages – sedimentation and filtration in a precoat cartridge filter. The addition of Aqua-AuratTM-30 coagulant with a dose of 40 mg/l as Al2O3 provided for reducing the concentration of suspended solids in the clarified effluent supplied to the precoat filters to 8 mg/l for modified clay and 15 mg/l for the mixed sorbent. The specific productivity of the alluvial layer was 23 m3/(h·m2), the specific load of the suspension on the filter surface was 850 g/m2 for modified clay, and 680 g/m2 for mixed sorbent. The estimated duration of the filtration phase of the alluvial layer while using preliminary chemical sedimentation was 4.6 and 2 h for the modified clay and mixed sorbent, respectively. The efficiency of removing heavy metal ions from effluents was provided at the level of the maximum permissible concentration for fishery water bodies.

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№6|2022

WASTE MANAGEMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.06.06
UDC 628.316.12

Vardanian Margarit

Ash and slag wastes of coals as promising sorbents of metal ions

Summary

The toughening requirements to the efficiency of wastewater treatment containing heavy metal ions call for searching new physical and chemical methods using inexpensive available materials as sorbents. The results of using ash and slag wastes generated at the heat and power plants operated by PJSC Irkutskenergo in Bratsk during the combustion of brown coal of the Irbeisk deposit in the process of removing iron (III) and aluminum ions from simulated solutions by sorption purification are presented. The specified wastes are not dangerous and have the form of a heterogeneous mixture of various mineral formations, predominantly calcium and magnesium carbonates (more than 50% by weight). Separate simulated solutions containing Fe3+ and Al3+ ions were prepared from state standard reference samples. The pH value was measured by the potentiometric method using Anion 4100 ion meter with silver chloride and glass electrodes. Iron and aluminum were determined according to the accepted methods. The results of the laboratory experiments have shown that the process of removing metals is accompanied by neutralization and alkalization of initially acidic solutions. The pH values obtained in this case exceed the initial values of metal hydroxide precipitation approaching pH of their complete precipitation with the addition of optimal amounts of ash and slag wastes. It is shown that the precipitated metal hydroxides are poorly soluble; therefore, if stored at the site of the sludge dump, they will have no negative impact on the environment. It has been established that the purification efficiency, depending on the process parameters, is 93–99 and 80–95% for Fe3+ and Al3+, respectively.

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№7|2012

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.316.12

SHVETSOV V. N., MOROZOVA K. M., Smirnova I. I., Domnin K. V., Arkhipova Е. Е.

Extraction of heavy metal ions from municipal effluent after biological treatment

Summary

The results of investigating the extraction of heavy metal ions from the municipal effluent after biological treatment with the use zeolites (clinoptilolite and Glint granulated sorbent) are presented. The zeolite sorption capacity under static and dynamic conditions was investigated. It was shown that only the use of clinoptilolite provided for the elimination of heavy metals to meet the standards for fishery water bodies. A procedure of designing filters with clinoptilolite for the removal of metals from municipal effluent after biological treatment was developed.

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№3|2021

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.03.06
UDC 628.345

Alekseyev E. V.

The use of «coasorption» concept while describing the effect of coagulants on the wastewater aqua systems (for discussion)

Summary

The widespread use of chemical coagulation in purification of natural water and industrial wastewater is due, on the one hand, to the complex chemical composition and phase-disperse state of their aqua systems, and on the other hand, to the multifactorial effect of coagulants on them. The main mechanisms of interaction between coagulants and pollutants are considered through the example of industrial wastewater treatment containing organic substances (surfactants and synthetic dyes). The physicochemical term «coagulation» reflects only one of the mechanisms of the effect of coagulants on pollutants. The currently accepted process parameters «dose of coagulant» and «specific dose of coagulant» do not reflect the variety of interactions of pollutants with coagulant salts either, and are not linked to the result of coagulation. This makes it difficult to describe the collective effect of physicochemical processes while adding coagulants to the treated water and to quantify it. The solution to the problem is possible introducing the concept of «coasorption» that determines the multifactorial origin of the interaction of coagulants and pollutants in the processes of wastewater treatment by coagulation; and the process parameter «specific coasorption» that establishes a quantitative relationship between the concentrations of pollutants in raw wastewater and effluent with a dose of coagulant. The specific coasorption functions are graphically presented in the form of coasorption isotherms for two types of surfactants and synthetic dyes. Based on the results of the analysis of the features of the isotherms, it is shown that they reflect different mechanisms of interaction between coagulants and pollutants. The use of coasorption as a technological concept provides for identifying the mechanisms of interaction of pollutants with a coagulant and establishing the best conditions for the coagulation process. The functional description of the coasorption isotherms allows extrapolating the results of trial coagulation in a wide range of pollutant concentrations. The practical importance of specific coasorption isotherms provides for determining the dosages of chemicals during coagulation of water based on the initial concentration of pollutants and effluent standard.

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№1|2013

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.334.5

FESENKO L. N., Popov D. V., Koulikov N. I.

Investigating an advanced method of surface runoff treatment in the city of Sochi

Summary

The results of investigating storm water treatment technologies under the conditions of Sochi are presented. A pilot treatment plant is described, the operation of the basic units – lamella settler and filters – is considered. The kinetics of surface runoff suspended solids sedimentation is investigated. The performance characteristics of the lamella module during chemical sedimentation: downward clarified water flow rate in cavities, upward flow in plate spacing, and water surface loading were determined. The efficiency of using fibrous filter for storm water treatment was theoretically substantiated and studied. The service adhesive capacity of the filter was determined. The methods of the treatment unit regeneration are suggested.

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№9|2017

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.33:622.692.5

Sakulin A. S.

Comprehensive process solutions for oily wastewater treatment

Summary

The demand for a comprehensive solution of the problems of construction and upgrade of the local wastewater treatment facilities necessitates the need in manufacturing equipment sets that provide for the complete oily wastewater treatment cycle. Based on the experience in this field a most efficient economically feasible technology of industrial wastewater treatment – dissolved-air chemical flotation with subsequent filtration in different filter types is proposed. «Ecoservice» Company has developed modular treatment facilities placed in container units or demountable buildings. These are ECO-LS units (for storm water treatment), ECO-AM (for car wash sites) etc. For the enterprises of «Russian Railways» ECO-NS unit was developed that had a compliance certificate and an expert report of Rospotrebnadzor. In this unit the comprehensive approach to the treatment technology – chemical dissolved air flotation, mechanical filtration and sorption was implemented. The versatility of this scheme is in the use of different flotation units depending on the wastewater pollution level. Besides, the use of different filter media provides for eliminating specific pollutants – ammonium, phenols, heavy metals. The complex unit is designed for wastewater treatment to the standard of effluent discharge into fishery water bodies. Despite the fact that the given complex unit has been developed for «Russian Railways» enterprises it can be used in other industries to remove oil products from wastewater.

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№3|2018

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.2:544.723.2

Gorelova E. I., Kotov V. V., Данилова Г. Н.

Iron removal from water by sorption on carbonic-silicate composite

Summary

In order to remove impurities from water a composite based on BAU-A activated carbon, silicon dioxide and kaolin with addition of silver nanoparticles was prepared. The composition of the obtained composite supposes the possibility of integrated water treatment with the removal of organic and inorganic impurities and microorganisms; while the presence of silicate- and alumosilicate-containing components in the composite supposes its cation-exchange properties. By scanning microscopy method the increase of the dispersion degree to nanoparticles of the composite fragments after processing with NaOH solution was found. The processes of Fe2+ ions sorption from aqueous solutions were studied. The physical and chemical properties of carbonic-silicate composite: saturate specific sorption and selectivity coefficient were determined. Sorption on 10 g of sorbent was carried out by the limited space method with the circulation 0.4 dm3 solution with the preset concentration. The mechanism of Fe2+ sorption was proposed that involved absorption process with redistribution of ions between equilibrium solution and pore volume at low Fe2+ concentrations; whereas at high Fe2+ concentrations - ion exchange sorption. The lowest iron concentrations were determined (25 mg/dm3) that provided for its complete removal as well as the upper limit of concentrations (35 mg/dm3) that provided for the standard values of sorption purification.

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№02|2015

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.2.66.081.63

Askerniia A. A., Khamizov R. Kh., Migol' V. G.

Specific features of mass transfer of silicon compounds through reverse osmosis membranes

Summary

In the process of siliferous natural water treatment with different mineralization levels in two-stage reverse osmosis units the transfer of colloid (polymer) silica forms through permselective membranes at the second stage of water desiliconization takes place. Based on the results of the studies carried out in industrial-scale two-stage reverse osmosis units an attempt to analyze the results obtained in the model that took into account the efficiency of sediment formation on the active surface of a reverse osmosis membrane was made. The summary of the experimental results on siliferous natural water treatment with reverse osmosis is presented. A physico-chemical model of colloid silicon transfer through membranes is suggested that provides for precoat filtration effects and silicon depolymerization and polymerization processes during the solution passing through the corresponding filtering layers. In case of dynamic phase equilibrium availability precoat filtration results in the increase of dissolved silicon concentration fed on the effective membrane surface and subsequent (backward) recovery of the equilibrium composition in permeate. A proximate mathematical model for stable conditions of mass transfer is suggested.

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№6|2021

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.06.01
UDC 628.161.2:926.214:66.021.2.081.3

Alekseev S. E., Korsa-Vavilova E. V., Shmelev A. Ia.

Estimation of the effectiveness of ozone use in the purification of heavily contaminated water supply sources

Summary

Sources of drinking water supply (the Velikaia, Volga, Vychegda, Kotorosl’, Limenda, Solda, Severnaia Dvina, Tom’ and Tura rivers) are characterized by increased concentrations of organic compounds of natural and anthropogenic origin. The traditional technology of two-stage water clarification by coagulation in terms of the efficiency, in this case, is not applicable to the quality of the source water; as a result, by some indicators, drinking water periodically does not meet the current standard requirements. It is especially difficult to ensure the permissible maximum concentrations of organic substances in drinking water, as well as of compounds of iron, manganese and residual aluminum. To provide for the purification of such water, additional oxidation and sorption methods have been studied. The research results showed that preliminary ozonation of river water and (or) post-ozonation of water after filtration at a water treatment plant provide for increasing the efficiency of purification in terms of color, turbidity, removal of iron and manganese compounds; for reducing the concentration of residual aluminum, and improving the organoleptic characteristics. Sorption with ozonation significantly improves the quality of treated water and allows to ensure the permissible level of organic pollutants in drinking water.

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№2|2011

WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.162.15

Nikitin A. M., Skolubovich Iurii, Voytov E. L.

Enhancement of Efficiency of Water Supply Stations Operation

Summary

Issues of intensification of processes of coagulation treatment of low-temperature, low-turbidity and high-chromaticity water from surface sources of water supply using the reactor-clarifiers of a new design are considered. The reactor-clarifier combines advantages of sludge blanket clarifiers and granular-bed filters, has a low operational cost and reliability. The efficient complex technology of treatment of potable water from surface sources developed on the basis of experimental studies is presented. This technology increases the efficiency of operation of reconstructed water supply stations at minimal working costs. The quality of potable water treated meets the specified requirements.

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№7|2013

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35

Ponomarev V. G.

Design and implementation of wastewater treatment projects

Summary

The analysis of technical solutions of surface run-off treatment process flow schemes is presented. The attention is focused on the necessity of selecting a treatment system in every specific case relying on the analysis of wastewater type and local drainage system. In addition the technological orientation of the local industries discharging their effluents into the municipal sewer shall be considered. One of the possible solutions of the given problem is the expediency of treatment of industrial effluents discharged into the storm sewer at the local treatment facilities located on the surface in a separate building or box at the industrial enterprise's premises.

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№05|2015

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.171:556:661.843

Boldyrev Kirill, Savel'eva E. A., Kapyrin I. V., Rastorguev A. V.

Calculations of the metal sorption parameters by the example of strontium at high sodium nitrate concentrations

Summary

For the proper evaluation of underground water protection a comprehensive analysis of pollutant migration from the pollution source is required. The problem of solution salinity effect on the substance distribution between water and water-bearing material has been insufficiently covered in literature because of the low parametric support of the widely used geochemical models and also because of the imperfection of the applied thermodynamic data bases. In the process of geochemical modeling tabular values of interfacial distribution coefficient are often used. Another approach often used in practice is transferring laboratory measured Kd values to geochemical model. The use of tabular and experimental data on interfacial distribution coefficient without proper correction can result in falsified predictions since the available Kd tabular values for metals in the process of predicting sorption parameters, as a rule, provide for a recommended value only for a definite type of water-bearing material (sand, loam, clay) and (rarely) for one or two water types which is evidently insufficient for the correct choice of Kd coefficient. High solution mineralization reduces sorption of all the components because of the competition for the sorption sections and because of metal ion complexation with the solution components. In the article the difficulties in designing the geochemical model of 90S strontium sorption at high concentrations of dissolved sodium nitrate are considered. Strontium sorption by solid phases was considered in relation to ion exchange and surface complexation. The designed model was verified versus literature data. An algorithm of geochemical modeling of dissolved substances distribution between water and hard rock is recommended.

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№3|2010

PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES

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UDC 628.31:725.384

NECHAEV I. A., BELEVCEV A. N., ZHAVORONKOVA V. I., MENSHUTIN Yu. A., BEZRUKOV S. Z., BAJKOVA S. A., MELNIKOVA N. N.

Ecological Problems of Operation of Car-Washing Facilities and Means of Their Solving

Summary

A brief analysis of problems connected with the use of water in car-washing systems, disposal and treatment of wastewater generated is made. Main components of the car-washing facility’s wastewater are suspended substances, oil products and synthetic surface active agents. To ensure efficient treatment of wastewater guaranteeing the quality of treated water meeting the requirements of its use in recirculating systems as well as for discharge into sewerage networks, basins or on the relief it is necessary to use a complex of methods including coagulation, flotation, ozonization and sorption. A principal basic flowchart of the use, treatment and disposal of wastewater from car-washing facilities guaranteeing water quality and meeting the normative standards is proposed.

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№1|2012

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.33:551.577.21

IVKIN P. A., MENSHUTIN Yu. A., Sokolova E. V., Fomicheva E. V., Kedrov Yu. V.

The efficiency of storm water treatment facilities of continuous flow type

Summary

The analysis of technical parameters and process efficiency of some modifications of continuous flow storm water treatment facilities manufactured by international and Russian vendors that have been widely used nowadays for storm and melt water treatment is presented. Continuous flow installations operate as part of a gravity storm water collection system without any accumulating tank under highly irregular hydraulic load conditions. On the basis of process calculations made according to the effective in RF design rules and norms as well as on the basis of the practical data analysis a number of essential process and design faults are revealed that account for low sanitary and environmental efficiency and high operating vulnerability of such installations during surface runoff treatment.

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vstmag engfree 200x100 2

Баннер конференции для ВСТ 2023 Ялта 200х200

tv200 200

RAWW 200x200

ecwatech2023 vst200

Wasma23 200x100 stand

myproject msk ru

Российская ассоциация водоснабжения и водоотведения

souz ingenerov 02