10 2020

Number 10 / 2020

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№10|2020

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

DOI 000000

UDC 504.454:519.257

Melnitsky I. A., Trukhanova N. V. , Beloliptsev I. I., Kantor E. A., Kholova Al’fiia, Vozhdaeva Juliya

Simulating the concentration of oil products in the natural water of Ufa

Summary

The results of statistical processing of data on the concentration of oil products in river water are presented. According to the monitoring results for the period 2002–2016, the concentration of oil products in the Ufa River water and tap water in Ufa was less than 0.05 mg/dm3; in the Belaya River water it was in the range of 0.05–0.4 mg/dm3. To identify the influence of deterministic (cyclical and seasonal trending) and random factors on the concentration of oil products in the Belaya River water the method of decomposition of a time series using an additive model was used. The hypothesis of an increase in the trend in the concentration of oil products in the Belaya River water was confirmed. The probability of exceeding the concentration of oil products in river water above the established value of the maximum permissible concentration is estimated. It has been stated that the concentration of oil products in the Belaya River water sampled upstream and downstream the city is dominated by random factors: 62.6 and 80.5%, respectively.

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№10|2020

WATER TREATMENT

DOI 000000

UDC 628.161.3:628.169

Karmalov A. I., Naimanov A. Ia., Martynenko Grigorii, Naimanova Asiiat

Reconstruction of the facilities for reusing wash water
from de-ironing plant filters

Summary

The object of the study is wash water from multi-layer rapid filters of a deironing plant and flocculant solution used for the wash water treatment. The purpose of the work is developing an optimal process flow scheme for the treatment of wash water for the subsequent reconstruction of the facilities for wash water treatment at the deironing plant in Tomsk. In the course of work, experimental studies were carried out of the interaction of the wash water generated after washing the rapid filters of the artesian water deironing plant in Tomsk with flocculant solution of various concentrations. As a result of the study, the optimal process flow scheme for the wash water treatment was selected; the dose of the flocculant solution was 0.3 g/m3 and the concentration of the flocculant solution was 0.05%. The extent of adoption was as follows: the results of the work were used in the reconstruction project of the wash water treatment facilities at the de-ironing plant in Tomsk. The data on the flocculant dose and concentration of the flocculant solution will be used in the operation of the facilities after the reconstruction. The effectiveness of the flocculant solution is determined by the degree of water clarification visually and in a lab environment by determining the concentration of iron oxide in clarified water. The economic efficiency of the selected process flow scheme is due to the return of 7200 m3/day of water for reuse saving more than 7% of the daily costs for water abstraction.

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№10|2020

LAWS, STANDARDS, NORMATIVES

DOI 000000

UDC 628.2/.4:006.35

Kharkina O. V.

The use of methods for calculating biological wastewater treatment facilities (for discussion)

Summary

Current requirements to the quality of effluent of wastewater treatment facilities call for introducing nitrification, denitrification, and phosphorus removal processes into the biological wastewater treatment, in addition to aerobic oxidation of organic compounds. The impossibility of ensuring the quality of effluents to be discharged into fishery water bodies in terms of nutrients MPCs values ​​is explained by the incorrect solutions designed for the introduction of biological wastewater treatment processes, and incorrect approaches to the design of facilities. The section «Wastewater disposal and treatment» of the Expert and Technological Council of the Russian Water Supply and Wastewater Association receives a lot of questions from water professionals interested in the methods of calculating wastewater treatment facilities and, primarily, biological treatment facilities. In this regard, the section «Wastewater disposal and treatment» of ETC RAWW develops Recommendations on the use of methods for calculating wastewater treatment facilities. This document, though not mandatory for execution, will contain information reflecting the viewpoints of the research workers, engineers, technologists, designers and experts in the operation of wastewater treatment facilities, members of the section. The Recommendations will include the results of calculations performed according to various methods and models, as well as conclusions indicating the possibility or impossibility of using certain calculation methods, as well as their limitations and correctness. It is planned to publish by parts the information on various calculation methods, techniques, approaches to calculations, as well as documents containing one or another approach to the design of wastewater treatment facilities is prescribed. After the analysis has been carried out, the consolidated material will be published in the form of Recommendations. This paper presents an analysis of the information contained in SP 32.13330.2018 on the calculation of biological wastewater treatment facilities as the most urgent problem presently.

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№10|2020

SURFACE RUNOFF TREATMENT

DOI 000000

UDC 628.22

Vereshchagina Lidiia, Gromov Grigorii, Ten A. E., Khudiakova Dar’ia

Analysis of foreign and domestic approaches to the hydraulic calculation of gravity storm sewer networks

Summary

In accordance with the requirements approved by the Decree of the RF Government of September 5, 2013 No. 782 «On the development of water supply and wastewater disposal schemes» (as amended on May 22, 2020), projects of the developed water supply and wastewater disposal schemes for settlements and urban districts of the Russian Federation with a population of 150 thousand people and more must include an electronic model. At the same time, the software used for the electronic model must ensure the performance of hydraulic calculations, including rainwater (storm) sewer networks operating in gravity and pressure modes. Analysis of literature data and official websites of software manufacturers show that at present in Russia no domestic software for calculating gravity storm sewer networks that meet the requirements of the current regulatory document – SP 32.13330.2018 «SNiP 2.04.03-85. Sewerage. External networks and structures» that regulates the design of wastewater systems for settlements, urban districts is available. Foreign companies working in the Russian market have certain experience in this area. In this regard, the possibilities of software products of various companies have been studied that provide for the electronic models allowing to perform hydraulic calculations and design gravity systems for the surface runoff disposal. The authors have analyzed European regulatory documents, including BS EN 752: 2017, and also performed verification calculations in terms of determining the flow rates of surface (rain) runoff. The results show that the use or adaptation of foreign software products to the design environment in Russia is not possible because of their inconsistency with the applied design dependencies and the requirements of the current regulatory documents of the Russian Federation.

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№10|2020

SURFACE RUNOFF TREATMENT

DOI 000000

UDC 628.218:628.334.6

Yermolin Yu. A.

On the calculation of the capacity of intermediate storage tanks
in storm sewer networks (further to the discussion)

Summary

Within the framework of the announced discussion («Calculation method for determining the capacity of intermediate storage tanks in storm sewer networks», article by G. Gudkov, published in No. 6 of the journal for 2020), the results of one particular case of developing a method of approximate calculation of the capacity of an intermediate storage tank in a storm sewer were critically «analyz» and «accuracy» criteria. It is noted that in some cases, with a high degree of uncertainty of the initial data, these criteria may contradict each other. It is concluded that the approximation of rain hydrographs by more simple functions of time, convenient for subsequent analysis, is acceptable without any significant loss of accuracy. On this basis, an expression was obtained for calculating the capacity of an intermediate storage tank in storm sewer networks. The compact formula is more convenient for engineering calculations than the one presented in the above-mentioned article.

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№10|2020

SURFACE RUNOFF TREATMENT

DOI 000000

UDC 628.221

IGNATCHIK V. S., Ignatchik S. Iu., Kuznetsova N. V., Zhitenev A. I., Kostenko I. G., Kurganov Iu. A., Volkov Sergei, Seniukovich Mikhail

Study of the storm runoff mechanism (for discussion)

Summary

For the hydraulic calculation of surface runoff disposal networks in SP 32.13330.2018 «Sewerage. External Networks and Structures», a technique is applied that implements the method of «limiting intensities». Despite its notability and widespread use in practice, a number of authors point to a limited area of its use. However, there are no results of a quantitative assessment of the errors of this method in the technical literature. For this reason, the analysis of the degree of influence of the accepted assumptions on the results of hydraulic calculations was carried out. It has been established that with certain ratios of other factors, the use of the «limiting intensities» method can result in an underestimation (from 1.2 to 1.7 times) of the calculated wastewater flow rates. Taking into account the results obtained, two directions of work are formulated to eliminate the consequences of flooding in sewer basins. The first direction provides for the introduction of engineering measures aimed at increasing the reliability and efficiency of the sewer system operation, the second – the improvement of the construction regulations that exclude the creation of problem situations in the future.

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№10|2020

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 000000

UDC 628.196

Romanovskii Valentin, Gorelaia Olesia

Sorbent for oily wastewater treatment based on the wastes of de-ironing plants

Summary

The results of studying the properties of a sorbent obtained by the synthesis of nanosized iron oxides from the sludge generated during purification of wash water of de-ironing filters are presented. The method of exothermic combustion in solutions was chosen for the synthesis. Citric acid and hexamethylenetetramine were used as reducing agents in a stoichiometric ratio according to the reaction equation. X-ray phase analysis of the obtained samples showed the predominant presence of a magnetite phase and, at temperatures above 600°C, an additional hematite phase. The total static exchange capacity and specific surface area of the synthesized sorbent samples (up to 186.6 m2/g) were determined from the sorption of methylene blue dye. The sorbent capacity of the materials obtained (up to 3.1 g/g) is not inferior to the existing sorbents of oil products. Obtaining magnetic oil sorbents is possible eliminating the use of expensive technologies but with the simultaneous use of waste from de-ironing plants which will provide for reducing the negative anthropogenic impact on the environment and obtaining an economic effect at least by reducing the cost of production.

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№10|2020

ABROAD

DOI 000000

UDC 628.169

Kofman V. Ya.

Enhancement of biogas generation during anaerobic digestion of excess activated sludge (a review)

Summary

In the process of biological wastewater treatment vast amounts of sludge are generated. Among the methods of sludge handling anaerobic digestion holds a prominent place combining both possible biogas production and prevention of secondary environmental pollution. The rate-limiting stage of anaerobic digestion is hydrolysis. Sludge pretreatment is a common way to increase the rate of hydrolysis and enhance biogas production; developing pretreatment options has been an area of noticeable exploratory activity. Methods of chemical pretreatment (acidic, alkaline, electrochemical oxidation, ozonation, Fenton process, persulfate process, treatment with calcium peroxide), biological pretreatment (two-stage thermophilic/mesophilic process) and physical pretreatment (thermal hydrolysis, microwave treatment, electrokinetic disintegration, ultrasonic treatment, high pressure homogenization) are considered. The patented technologies for pretreatment of wastewater sludge and the main manufacturers of the relative equipment are presented. As an alternative to the traditional anaerobic digestion a microbial electrolysis cell is considered where methane generation during electromethanogenesis occurs in the presence of exoelectrogenic bacteria. A number of wastewater sludge pretreatment technologies are currently available for the implementation on an industrial scale. In this regard, an urgent need in the development of a standardized methodology for analyzing the technical and economic indicators of various anaerobic digestion systems is evident in order to select an optimal option for specific conditions.

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