Tag:disinfection byproducts



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UDC 628.19

Kofman V. Ya.

Water crisis in Flint, Michigan, USA (2014–2015)


The city of Flint (Michigan, USA) was supplied with drinking water under the contract from Detroit. In 2014 for reasons of economy it was decided to provide for the temporary drinking water supply by rehabilitating the old water treatment plant that abstracted water from the local Flint River. Laboratory studies of the Flint River water were carried out; however, the corrosiveness index either was not determined or ignored; as a result orthophosphate corrosion inhibitor was not dosed into the water. In the municipal water distribution system and many houses up to now lead pipes and lead-containing fittings have been used. Under the circumstances the concentration of lead in water increased sharply. The existing municipal water quality monitoring system and sampling practice were focused mainly on concealing the low water quality. Numerous complaints of the residents, manifestation of exanthematous disease after using hot water, elevated lead concentrations in children’s blood led to announcing the emergency situation in the city and taking measures to investigate on the federal level the true situation with water contamination with lead.

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UDC 628.166

Kofman V. Ya.

Toxic byproducts of water disinfection in swimming pools:
ways of formation and health risks


Up to date around 100 byproducts of water disinfection in swimming pools have been identified. Their basic precursors are biological fluids of the human organism and various organic pollutants also introduced by the visitors. Numerous studies have revealed the potential toxicity of water disinfection byproducts. At present in some countries the concentrations of trihalomethanes and halogen acetic acids in water in swimming pools are subject to regulation. Meeting the currently adopted water quality standards can be ensured by traditional disinfection methods (chlorination, ozonation, ultraviolet irradiation, the use of mixed oxidants) only providing the attendance policy and swimming pool maintenance rules have been observed, during their intensive use, in particular. Lately much attention has been paid to highly toxic nitrogen-containing and brominated byproducts of water disinfection that are present in high concentrations in swimming pools with sea water. For water disinfection in swimming pools different methods are used; herewith for each of them alongside with advantages the probability of byproduct formation exists. The list of detected disinfection byproducts is continuously expanded owing to the improvement of the analytical instruments as well as to the increase of the variety of pollutants introduced by the visitors, sun-protections creams in particular.

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Российская ассоциация водоснабжения и водоотведения

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