DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.12.08
UDC 628.316:544.772:614.446

Kofman V. Ya., Vishnevskii Mikhail, Baurina Aleksandra

Bioaerosols at wastewater treatment facilities: sources, composition, sanitary and epidemiological risks (a review)


Attention to the issue of bioaerosol emissions in the process of wastewater treatment has increased with reports about wastewater aerosolization as a potential source of SARS-CoV-2 virus exposure to the air during the recent COVID-19 pandemic; however, the impact of exposure to bioaerosols on the health of the people with compromised immunity, personnel of treatment facilities and population of adjacent territories has been reported earlier. Emission of bioaerosols occurs at various stages of the technological process (mechanical treatment, biological treatment, wastewater sludge treatment). The amount of bioaerosols formed depends on the hydrodynamic conditions of wastewater treatment, type of treatment plant (closed or open), wastewater composition, treatment technology used, technical characteristics of the equipment, capacity of the treatment facilities, operating conditions, aeration rate and mode, concentration of biomass and growth phase of microorganisms. Bioaerosols contain pathogenic bacteria including those resistant to antibiotics, fungi that are potential pathogens of mycetogenic diseases, as well as viruses that can survive for a long period of time in wastewater and are spread by airborne transmission. The applied methods of bioaerosol analysis provide data on the presence, size and viability of aerosol microorganisms; however, until now no standard methodology for sampling bioaerosols has been available. Thermal treatment and ultraviolet irradiation, the use of air filters and ventilation have become widespread among the means of preventing the formation and spread of bioaerosols. Various research in this area has focused on the use of granular activated carbon, floating plastic balls for water surface isolation, reactor surface vacuum treatment, wastewater sludge composting using membrane coating, the use of biofilters, and installation of wind barriers along the boundaries of wastewater treatment facilities and vertical gardening systems.

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UDC 628.16.085


Modernization of the Process of Secondary Water Disinfecting in the Treatment System (on the Example of the Amur)


Results of the research of various modes of water disinfecting (chlorination, the UV-irradiation) at a special pilot test complex are submitted. Data on the virological and bacteriological analysis of water under the conditions of background and high microbiological pollution of the Amur are presented.

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DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.01.06
UDC 628.166

Ponomarenko A. M., Vlasov Dmitrii, Basov N. S., Novikov S. N., Koudryavtsev N. N., Kostyuchenko S. V.

Experience in introducing UV disinfection of effluents at operating extremely large-scale treatment facilities


The experience of Mosvodokanal JSC in introducing the technology of effluent disinfection is presented. The paper describes the problem, typical for the Moscow treatment facilities, of ensuring the effluent disinfection in line with the regulatory requirements. The results of long-term experimental-industrial and pilot tests for the UV-disinfection of wastewater after biological treatment carried out at the Kurianovskie wastewater treatment facilities using domestic UV equipment, revealed the high efficiency and stability of disinfection up to the standard requirements under conditions of actual fluctuations in the physical and chemical indicators of wastewater quality. The high efficiency of UV disinfection in relation to specific microorganisms, resistant to chlorination, such as viruses, coliphages, protozoan cysts, has been established. The tests carried out provided for evaluating the effectiveness of UV disinfection and developing a concept for the application of UV disinfection at the Moscow wastewater treatment facilities.

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UDC 574.58

Rublevskaya O. N., Pozdniakov Sh. R.

Tackling the problem of bacterial pollution of water bodies in St. Petersburg


The integrated waterway system «Lake Ladoga – the Neva River – the Gulf of Finland» has been the main water source, effluent receiving water body and the main recreation zone of St. Petersburg. SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg» alongside with reducing nutrient load on the Baltic Sea has been tackling the problems of bacterial pollution of the Waterway system with the purpose of expanding the water use and recreation zones within the frames of Russia meeting the international commitments arising from the Helsinki Convention. Therefore the issues of sanitary and epidemiologic safety of the water bodies have been the most important for St. Petersburg. Beginning from 2011 Vodokanal has been carrying out annual control of the water quality in the Neva River from the headstream to the estuary. The purpose of this control is monitoring microbiological and chemical parameters as well as detecting the main pollution sources. The causes of bacterial pollution of the water bodies of St. Petersburg are considered. Implementing the programs of SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg» by 2022 will provide for the complete elimination of discharging raw wastewater from the direct outfalls into the Neva River and in future stop discharging nondisinfected effluents of the wastewater treatment facilities into the Neva River, Neva Bay and eastern part of the Gulf of Finland.

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