№12|2022

ABROAD

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.12.08
UDC 628.316:544.772:614.446

Kofman V. Ya., Vishnevskii Mikhail, Baurina Aleksandra

Bioaerosols at wastewater treatment facilities: sources, composition, sanitary and epidemiological risks (a review)

Summary

Attention to the issue of bioaerosol emissions in the process of wastewater treatment has increased with reports about wastewater aerosolization as a potential source of SARS-CoV-2 virus exposure to the air during the recent COVID-19 pandemic; however, the impact of exposure to bioaerosols on the health of the people with compromised immunity, personnel of treatment facilities and population of adjacent territories has been reported earlier. Emission of bioaerosols occurs at various stages of the technological process (mechanical treatment, biological treatment, wastewater sludge treatment). The amount of bioaerosols formed depends on the hydrodynamic conditions of wastewater treatment, type of treatment plant (closed or open), wastewater composition, treatment technology used, technical characteristics of the equipment, capacity of the treatment facilities, operating conditions, aeration rate and mode, concentration of biomass and growth phase of microorganisms. Bioaerosols contain pathogenic bacteria including those resistant to antibiotics, fungi that are potential pathogens of mycetogenic diseases, as well as viruses that can survive for a long period of time in wastewater and are spread by airborne transmission. The applied methods of bioaerosol analysis provide data on the presence, size and viability of aerosol microorganisms; however, until now no standard methodology for sampling bioaerosols has been available. Thermal treatment and ultraviolet irradiation, the use of air filters and ventilation have become widespread among the means of preventing the formation and spread of bioaerosols. Various research in this area has focused on the use of granular activated carbon, floating plastic balls for water surface isolation, reactor surface vacuum treatment, wastewater sludge composting using membrane coating, the use of biofilters, and installation of wind barriers along the boundaries of wastewater treatment facilities and vertical gardening systems.

Key words

, , , , ,

The further text is accessible on a paid subscription.
For authorisation enter the login/password.
Or subscribe

REFERENCES

  1. Hendryx M., Luo J. COVID-19 prevalence and fatality rates in association with air pollution emission concentrations and emission sources. Environmental Pollution, 2020, v. 265, an 115126.
  2. Holloway T. G., Williams J. B., Ouelhad D., Cleasby B. Process stress, stability and resilience in wastewater treatment processes: a novel conceptual methodology. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2020, v. 276, an 124434.
  3. Li J., Zhou L., Zhang X., et al. Bioaerosol emissions and detection of airborne antibiotic resistance genes from a wastewater treatment plant. Atmospheric environment, 2016, v. 124, pp. 404–412.
  4. Wang Y., Lan H., Li L., et al. Chemicals and microbes in bioaerosols from reaction tanks of six wastewater treatment plants: survival factors, generation sources, and mechanisms. Scientific Reports, 2018, v. 8 (1), pp. 1–12.
  5. Sánchez-Monedero M. A., Aguilar M. I., Fenoll R., Roig A. Effect of the aeration system on the levels of airborne microorganisms generated at wastewater treatment plants. Water Research, 2008, v. 42 (14), pp. 3739–3744.
  6. Wang Y., Li L., Xue S., et al. Characteristics and formation mechanism of intestinal bacteria particles emitted from aerated wastewater treatment tanks. Water Research, 2019, v. 163, an 114862.
  7. Hung H. F., Kuo Y. M., Chien C. C., Chen C. C. Use of floating balls for reducing bacterial aerosol emissions from aeration in wastewater treatment processes. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2010, v. 175 (1–3), pp. 866–871.
  8. Korzeniewska E. Emission of bacteria and fungi in the air from wastewater treatment plants – A review. Frontiers in Bioscience, 2011, v. 3, pp. 393–407.
  9. Han Y., Yang T., Yan X., et al. Effect of aeration mode on aerosol characteristics from the same wastewater treatment plant. Water Research, 2020, v. 170, an 115324.
  10. Burdsall A. C., Xing Y., Cooper C. W., et al. Bioaerosol emissions from activated sludge basins: Characterization, release, and attenuation. Science of the Total Environment, 2021, v. 753, an 141852.
  11. Singh N. K., Sanghvi G., Yadav M., et al. A state-of-the-art review on WWTP associated bioaerosols: microbial diversity, potential emission stages, dispersion factors, and control strategies. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2021, v. 410, an 124686.
  12. Bruni E., Simonetti G., Bovone B., et al. Evaluation of bioaerosol bacterial components of a wastewater treatment plant through an integrate approach and in vivo assessment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2020, v. 17 (1), an 273.
  13. Han Y., Li L., Liu J., Zhang M. Microbial structure and chemical components of aerosols caused by rotating brushes in a wastewater treatment plant. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2012, v. 19 (9), pp. 4097–4108.
  14. Han Y., Wang Y., Li L., et al. Bacterial population and chemicals in bioaerosols from indoor environment: sludge dewatering houses in nine municipal wastewater treatment plants. Science of the Total Environment, 2018, v. 618, pp. 469–478.
  15. Kowalski M., Wolany J., Pastuszka J. S., et al. Characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi in some Polish wastewater treatment plants. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2017, v. 14 (10), pp. 2181–2192.
  16. Sauter J., Van DenBerg H. H. J. L., Husman A. M. D. R. Atmospheric dispersion and transmission of Legionella from wastewater treatment plants: A 6-year case-control study. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 2021, v. 237, an 113811.
  17. Patentalakis N., Pantidou A., Kalogerakis N. Determination of enterobacteria in air and wastewater samples from a wastewater treatment plant by epi-fluorescence microscopy. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution: Focus, 2008, v. 8 (1), pp. 107–115.
  18. Андреев В. А., Зачиняева А. В., Москалев А. В., Сбойчаков В. Б.; под редакцией В. Б. Сбойчакова. Медицинская микология: руководство. – М.: ГЭОТАР-Медиа, 2008. 208 с.
    Andreev V. A., Zachiniaeva A. V., Moskalev V. A., Sboichakov V. B. Edited by V. B. Sboichakov. Meditsinskaia mikologiia: rukovodstvo [Medical mycology: a guide. Moscow, GEOTAR-Media, 2008, 208 p.].
  19. El Baz S., Imziln B. Can aerosols and wastewater be considered as potential transmissional sources of COVID-19 to humans? European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2020, v. 4 (2), em0047.
  20. Lin K., Marr L. C. Aerosolization of Ebola virus surrogates in wastewater systems. Environmental Science and Technology, 2017, v. 51, pp. 2669–2675.
  21. Korzeniewska E., Filipkowska Z., Gotkowska-Płachta A., et al. Determination of emitted airborne microorganisms from a BIO-PAK wastewater treatment plant. Water Research, 2009, v. 43 (11), pp. 2841–2851.
  22. Niazi S., Hassanvand M. S., Mahvi A. H., et al. Assessment of bioaerosol contamination (bacteria and fungi) in the largest urban wastewater treatment plant in the Middle East. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2015, v. 22 (20), pp. 16014–16021.
  23. Han Y., Yang K., Yang T., et al. Bioaerosols emission and exposure risk of a wastewater treatment plant with A2O treatment process. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2019, v. 169, pp. 161–168.
  24. Michałkiewicz M. Comparison of wastewater treatment plants based on the emissions of microbiological contaminants. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2018, v. 190 (11), an 640.
  25. Pasalari H., Ataei-Pirkooh A., Aminikhah M., et al. Assessment of airborne enteric viruses emitted from wastewater treatment plant: Atmospheric dispersion model, quantitative microbial risk assessment, disease burden. Environmental Pollution, 2019, v. 253, pp. 464–473.
  26. Könemann T., Savage N., Klimach T., et al. Spectral Intensity Bioaerosol Sensor (SIBS): an instrument for spectrally resolved fluorescence detection of single particles in real time. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 2019, v. 12 (2), рр. 1337–1363.
  27. Tian J. H., Yan C., Nasir Z. A., et al. Real time detection and characterization of bioaerosol emissions from wastewater treatment plants. Science of the Total Environment, 2020, v. 721, an 137629.
  28. Patentalakis N., Pantidou A., Kalogerakis N. Determination of enterobacteria in air and wastewater samples from a wastewater treatment plant by epi-fluorescence microscopy. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution: Focus, 2008, v. 8 (1), pp. 107–115.
  29. Lee B. U. Life comes from the air: a short review on bioaerosol control. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 2011, v. 11 (7), pp. 921–927.
  30. Hu X. R., Han M. F., Wang C., et al. A short review of bioaerosol emissions from gas bioreactors: Health threats, influencing factors and control technologies. Chemosphere, 2020, v. 253, an 126737.
  31. Guo X., Wu P., Ding W., et al. Reduction and characterization of bioaerosols in a wastewater treatment station via ventilation. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2014, v. 26 (8), pp. 1575–1583.
  32. Bustami R. A., Belusko M., Ward J., Beecham S. Vertical greenery systems: A systematic review of research trends. Building and Environment, 2018, v. 146, pp. 226–237.

Banner Oct 2024

myproject msk ru

Баннер конференции г. Пятигорск

souz ingenerov 02

Aquatherm 200x200 gif ru foreign

ata 200x100ru