05 2022

Number 5 / 2022

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№5|2022

DISCUSSING REGULATORY DOCUMENTS

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.05.01
UDC 628.2/.4:006.3:349.6

Vereshchagina L. M., Danilovich Dmitrii, Frog Dmitrii

Overview of the main amendments to the Code of Practice CP 32.13330.2018 «Sewerage. Pipelines and wastewater treatment plants» in terms of designing the systems for the disposal and treatment of surface runoff introduced in 2021

Summary

An overview of the main changes in the design of the systems for the disposal and treatment of surface runoff (rain, melt water) in the current set of rules – CP 32.13330.2018 «SNiP 2.04.03-85 Sewerage. Pipelines and wastewater treatment plants», developed in 2021 by the specialists of the Research Institute of Building Physics of the Russian Academy of Architecture and Building Sciences and a number of other organizations is presented. It is noted that the purpose of amending the current regulatory document is, in particular, harmonization of its provisions with the articles of the environmental legislation that came into force on January 1, 2019 and the new regulatory legal acts of the Government of the Russian Federation that provide for the transition to the principles of technological regulation of discharges in accordance with the technological indicators of the best available technologies. An overview of the most significant changes in CP 32.13330.2018 on the organization and calculation of the systems for the disposal and treatment of surface runoff is given.

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№5|2022

WATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.05.02
UDC 628.164.081.312.32

Selivanov Oleg, Pikalov Evgenii

Estimation of the effectiveness of using sodium-cation exchange resins in the process of water softening for the operation of heat producing plants

Summary

The results of estimating the effectiveness of removing hardness salts from water by the ion exchange method using various sodium-cation exchange resins with the aim of using softened water to feed heat producing plants are presented. The studies were carried out in an ion exchange pilot plant using a single-stage flow scheme of sodium cationization in laminar conditions. The experiments involved determining the dependence of the softening efficiency on the water flow rate until the resource exhaustion of each of the resins with the subsequent regeneration and repeated studies of the effectiveness at different flow rates. It was established that sodium-cation resins provided for a high degree of removing hardness salts. At the same time, higher results in terms of the softening efficiency and degree of regeneration were obtained with Purolite C100E and Tokem-150 resins. Based on the results of the studies using these trademarks of resin for water softening as part of multi-stage water treatment plants at thermal power plants and boiler houses was proposed.

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№5|2022

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.05.03
UDC 628.35

Kharkina O. V.

Comparison of the results of calculating aeration tanks according to the method of Danilovich–Epov and ASM2d model (part 1)

Summary

The analysis of the method proposed by D. A. Danilovich and A. N. Epov for calculating aeration tanks that implement nitrogen and phosphorus removal technologies is carried out. A comparison of the results of calculations by this method and ASM2d method is given. It is shown that, in contrast to the ASM2d method that refers to theoretical models and describes the processes of biological wastewater treatment using the formulas of enzyme kinetics, the method under consideration is, in essence, an empirical calculation that contains constants that are invariable and, for the most part, not having the physical meaning. Since empirical models make a connection between the parameters obtained on the basis of the experimental data of a particular object under strictly limited conditions, these models can only be applied if all the parameters of another object exactly match the data of the object the proposed model was compiled for. Accordingly, using any empiric models, including the method under consideration, at the facilities that were not the objects for the compilation of these empiric models, leads to the risk of obtaining incorrect calculation results. Based on the performed calculations, the risks and constraints of using the method proposed by Danilovich and Epov for the calculation of biological treatment facilities are shown. In the first part of the paper, a design analysis was carried out to determine the values of the aerobic age of activated sludge that were the basic values for calculating the volume of aerobic zones of aeration tanks.

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№5|2022

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.05.04
UDC 628.345

Stepanov S. V., Avdeenkov Pavel, Ponomarenko Ol’ga, MOROZOVA K. M.

The results of studies of physical and chemical wastewater treatment of an egg processing enterprise

Summary

The composition of wastewater of an enterprise for advanced processing of chicken eggs characterized by the following parameters: COD 3,600–12,200mg/l, concentration of suspended solids 1,206–3,031 mg/l, BODtotal 2,534–8,540 mg/l, no phosphates, pH 5.4– 13.2 was studied. The concentration of nitrogen compounds, mg/l, varied within the following ranges: ammonium – 0.4–11.4; nitrates – 0–15.3; nitrites – 0–7.3; organic nitrogen – 26.6–89.7. Based on the results of test coagulation, the optimal coagulant chosen was low-basic polyaluminum chloride brand «Aqua-AuratTM-14» with a dose of 125 mg/l as Al2O3. The average treatment efficiency while using this coagulant was, %: for COD – 77.3; for BODtotal – 76.3; for suspended solids – 80.1; for organic nitrogen – 58.7. The lowest concentration of residual aluminum 0.31 mg/l at the initial concentration of 0.29 mg/l corresponded to pH 6.7–7. Unit costs for the coagulant amounted to 9.37 rubles/m3.

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№5|2022

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.05.05
UDC 628.3(628.345.1)

Arduanova Anna, Glushankova I. S.

Choosing coagulants and flocculants for the local treatment of wastewater of pulp and paper industry

Summary

The results of studies on removing lignosulfonates, suspended solids and sulfur-containing compounds from pulp and paper industry wastewater by chemical treatment are presented. As chemicals the following coagulants were studied: alumina, ferrous sulfate, iron (III) sulfate, and flocculants Praestol and RusFloc, that differ in charge, molar mass, and ionic activity. In the course of the experiment, it was found that the most effective removal of lignosulfonates and sulfur-containing compounds from wastewater proceeded in the presence of ferrous sulfate coagulant and Praestol 810 cationic flocculant. In this case, easily settling thickened sludge is formed and the efficiency of removing sulfide ion is 92%, the color of water decreases 3–4 times. The optimal dose of the coagulant as metal ion is 300 mg/dm3, the dose of the flocculant is 1.5 mg/dm3. Comparison of the activity of RusFloc cationic flocculants in terms of settling time, sludge layer thickness, clarified water COD, showed that the use of RusFloc 504 cationic flocculant is most effective for the coagulation of wastewater containing lignosulfonates. The optimal dose of the chemical was 5 mg/dm3. Studies on wastewater treatment by coagulation-flocculation in the presence of ferrous sulfate coagulant and RusFloc 504 flocculant at pH 8.5 showed 70% reduction of COD of organic compounds – lignosulfonates, and more than 90% color. On the basis of the conducted studies, the choice of conditions and effective chemicals for the local treatment of pulp and paper industry wastewater is substantiated.

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№5|2022

PRACTICAL NOTES

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.05.06
UDC 628.356

Matуushenko Evgeny, Rebitva Sergei, Borisova Kristina

Wastewater treatment of a cottage estate. Design and operational errors

Summary

The principle of operation, as well as the errors while designing and operating a compact wastewater treatment plant with a design capacity of 500 m3/day (actual flow rate is 250–280 m3/day) are considered. The treatment facilities have been designed in two phases and include the stages of mechanical and biological treatment, followed by tertiary treatment in biofilters with expanded clay media, and UV disinfection of the effluent after biological treatment. Gravity sludge thickeners and dehydrators are provided for processing the resulting sludge. Upon the detailed consideration of the design solutions, as well as the problems revealed during the operation, design errors were identified that made it impossible to ensure the required quality of wastewater treatment. Currently, to enhance the operation of the complex, a number of facilities are being upgraded. This will provide for reaching the stable operation of the complex and ensuring the standard indicators at the MPC level for organic and suspended solids in the effluent before being discharged into a water body.

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№5|2022

WASTE MANAGEMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.05.07
UDC 691.215.1:691.5:628.544

Kamarou Maksim, Romanovskii Valentin

Production of synthetic gypsum from water treatment wastes, i. e., incompletely burned lime

Summary

Synthetic gypsum is a material that is produced in the process of sulfuric acid interacting with carbonate-containing materials. It is a promising analogue of natural gypsum for those countries that do not have deposits of natural gypsum stone. Synthetic gypsum produced on the basis of incompletely burned lime, can be attributed to the first grade of gypsum; however, there are significant differences from natural gypsum confirmed by the results of differential thermal analysis. The main peaks of the effects are shifted down by 30–50°C owing to the higher reactivity of the synthesized material. In the production of synthetic gypsum, a by-product is generated, i. e., a filtrate that contains salts (sulfates) of sodium, potassium, magnesium, which opens up the possibility of using it as a complex micro fertilizer.

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