03 2022

Number 3 / 2022

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№3|2022

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.03.01
UDC 628.16

SMIRNOV A. D., Belyak А. А., GERASIMOV M. M., Sverdlikov Aleksandr

Estimation of possible increasing the barrier function of natural water treatment facilities during periods of extraordinary situations

Summary

The need of increasing the barrier functions of water treatment process schemes and facilities during the periods of extraordinary pollution of water bodies is considered. The causes of extraordinary situations at water sources are as follows: industrial and transport accidents, manmade disasters, seasonal floods and even waterless seasons. The differences between extraordinary situations and their consequences in the water treatment practice from ordinary cases are given. Rules have been developed for preparing clean water of standard quality in emergency situations. Laboratory tests of water purification from the sources of various climatic zones using powdered activated carbons were conducted with water from Yakutsk, Astrakhan, Ryazan and Simferopol water utilities. The main sorption characteristics of the tested sorbents for methylene blue and iodine were determined. The results of testing powdered sorbents for four water sources showed that, compared with the traditional two-stage water purification scheme, the use of powdered activated carbon in the headworks of the process flow scheme provided for achieving the standard values for the permanganate index and total iron concentration. Also, unpleasant odors of water are almost completely eliminated, while no increase in coagulant doses was required compared to the operating facilities. It is shown that the efficiency of using powdered carbon practically does not depend on the climatic conditions of the regions. A generalized chart for the use of powdered carbon at the facilities with a two-stage treatment process flow scheme is proposed.

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№3|2022

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.03.02
UDC 628.164

Kasatochkin A. S., Larionov S. Iu., Panteleev Aleksei, Riabchikov Boris, Shapovalov Dmitrii, Kharitonov Nikolai, Shilov Mikhail

Comparison of the options of systems for adjusting the salt composition of water from underground sources

Summary

Underground water sources with a high content of hardness salts are often used for drinking water supply. To achieve drinking water quality reducing its hardness is required. Known methods of softening result in the formation of a significant amount of liquid and solid wastes, i. e. mineralized wastewater or sludge that cannot be disposed of. Chemical water softening in clarifiers is used quite rarely owing to the difficulty of preparing chemicals, maintaining the constant required water temperature, and the complexity and maintenance of the equipment. In the 1990s, the technology of chemical softening in intensified reactors (vortex and blanket) was developed that gained widespread use in drinking water supply. Such units are quite frequently used in Europe and USA. At present Mediana-Filter Research and Production Company JSC is taking on the task of designing and testing reactors of this type. They have a high specific output of 50–100 m3/(m2·h), and their maintenance is much easier compared to clarifiers. The capacity of such plants reaches thousands of cubic meters per hour. Their main advantage is the elimination of liquid discharges and generation of solid wastes that can subject to utilization, while the yield of clean water is about 100%.

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№3|2022

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.03.03
UDC 628.168

Raff P. A., Fliagin Aleksandr

Optimization of the operation of the Penza water treatment facilities

Summary

With the purpose of providing for high quality drinking water at the Penza water treatment facilities, timely measures were taken to remove odor in the midst of plankton growth in the water source. Advanced flocculants were chosen for the processes of water and wash water treatment at the filtration facilities. Reducing the cost of chemical water treatment was achieved. The results of in-process testing of sorption purification of natural water carried out during the period of intensive plankton growth showed possible odor reduction by 1 point and feasible zeolite use during the initial and active periods of odor appearance in the water source.

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№3|2022

WATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.03.04
UDC 628.161.2:628.166-926.214

Kozin Dmitrii, Prokof’ev Valerii, Prokof’eva Taisiia

Experience of using ozone for deironing water of a complex composition

Summary

The purpose of the study was developing a process flow scheme and determining the main parameters of the ozonation method for removing iron and manganese compounds from process water. The studies were carried out in a pilot plant; the test object was circulating water at a power engineering facility in Bashkiria. To achieve this goal, a multi-stage experiment was conducted that provided for: determining the optimal doses of ozone, ozone contact time with processed water; choosing the main design options for using sorption filters; adjusting the filtration rate. The data of the experimental studies proving the effectiveness of the chosen method are presented. The results obtained provide for determining the costs of water treatment, estimating the operating costs, and compare the proposed and alternative methods for removing iron and manganese compounds.

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№3|2022

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.03.05
UDC 628.355

Kevbrina M. V., Gavrilov Dmitrii, Belov N. A., Agarev Anton

The effect of the operation of secondary settling tanks on the efficiency of biological removal of nitrogen through the example of Kuryanovskie wastewater treatment facilities

Summary

«Mosvodokanal» JSC conducted an industrial-scale experiment with the secondary settling tanks of the new section of the Kuryanovskie wastewater treatment facilities in Moscow in order to determine the effect of the operation of settling tanks on the efficiency of biological removal of nitrites. With an increase in the level of sludge stand in the secondary settling tanks, conditions arise in the sludge layer at the bottom of the settler for the anaerobic processes that cause the lysis of activated sludge cells. Under these conditions, a sufficient amount of organic matter is generated in the sludge layer, both residual, occluded on sludge flocks, and formed during the lysis of part of the cells, so that in the presence of nitrates, the process of incomplete denitrification starts with the formation of nitrites. The occurrence of anaerobic processes in the bottom sludge layer in the secondary settling tanks is also affected by the oxygen concentration in the mixed liquor entering the secondary settling tanks. The process parameters of the operation of the facilities that prevent a decrease in the quality of effluent are determined: regulating the operation of secondary settling tanks depending on the load and residence time of the sludge dry matter that prevents the sludge from long staying in the bottom layer, as well as maintaining a high oxygen concentration at the end part of the aeration tanks.

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№3|2022

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.03.06
UDC 628.3

Koulakov A. A.

Estimation of the achievability of the environmental and technological regulations at small wastewater treatment facilities

Summary

The transition of water and wastewater services to technological regulations imposes new environmental requirements for wastewater treatment facilities. The probability of meeting environmental and technological regulations at 117 sites was estimated. For two groups of treatment facilities (midget, small and minor), the achievability of the regulations for suspended solids, BODtotal, nitrogen (ammonium, nitrite, nitrate) and phosphate-phosphorus was determined. The smallest proportion of the facilities could provide for meeting the maximum permissible concentrations of suspended solids (12.2 and 8.8%), phosphate-phosphorus (24.5 and 8.3%) and ammonium nitrogen (12.2 and 9%) in the effluents discharged into water bodies of commercial fishing importance. Meeting the technological regulations for water bodies of category B looks more likely and is 30.6% for ammonium nitrogen, for other indicators – more than 70%.

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№3|2022

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.03.07
UDC 628.316:66.081.63

Il’ina Marina, Selivanov Oleg, Pikalov Evgenii

Estimation of the ultrafiltration efficiency for leachate treatment from solid waste landfills

Summary

The results of estimating the efficiency of wastewater treatment by ultrafiltration in various membrane elements upstream reverse osmosis separation are presented. The studies were carried out in a pilot ultrafiltration unit using ceramic tubular membrane elements and hollow fiber membrane elements made of polysulfone and polyvinylidene fluoride supplied by various manufacturers. Leachate of a solid waste landfill was used as the test water. The research results showed that all the considered membrane elements provided for a high degree of removing suspended solids (> 99.9%), total iron (80%), oil products (> 90%), non-ionic surfactants (> 84%). The final performance of all tested membrane elements was virtually the same. Comparing the performance of membrane elements with clean tap water after chemical washing showed that the highest degree of recovery was observed in a pressure hollow fiber element based on polysulfone (80%). Thus, hollow fiber membrane elements made of polysulfone will have the longest service life while maintaining a high degree of purification of leachate from a solid waste landfill.

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№3|2022

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.03.08
UDC 628.39(282.256.341.9)

Kotskii Ivan, Chizhik K. I.

Prospects for the development of wastewater disposal in the Listvyanka municipality and the Baikal Highway of the Irkutsk Region

Summary

The information concerning the development of the Listvyanka municipality of the Irkutsk Region is given. The existing and projected scheme for the development of wastewater disposal networks in the urban settlement of Listvyanka and the settlements of the Baikal Highway of the Irkutsk Region is described. A scheme of the planned rout locations of pressure and gravity pipelines of the wastewater disposal scheme under design is given. Providing centralized wastewater disposal for the Listvyanka municipality and settlements of the Baikal Highway will reduce the impact on the environmental state of Lake Baikal, Listvennichny Bay, the right bank of the Angara River and the Irkutsk water reservoir.

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