11 2022

Number 11 / 2022

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№11|2022

DESIGNING WATER AND WASTEWATER SYSTEMS

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.11.01
UDC 621.644:519.863

Shlafman Vitalii

History of development and applied aspects of the issues of the optimal synthesis of pipeline systems

Summary

The issues of development and applied aspects of the problematics of the optimal synthesis of pipeline systems, their role and place in the advanced practice of designing and operating network facilities are considered. An analysis of the generality of continuous and discrete formulations for addressing the problem of optimizing the parameters and schemes of pipeline systems is given. The main aspects of constructing an optimization criterion for technical and economic calculations; the mathematical and meaningful origin of the main criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of capital investments, i. e., reduced and discounted costs are considered. The analysis of methods of delivering the compared options of the technical solution to the identical material result is carried out. The results of applying the proposed criterion for the comparative economic efficiency of capital investments for solving the problem of optimizing the scheme and parameters of a group water main are presented. Principal approaches to the application of minimization formulations of the optimal synthesis problem to the solution of the problem of rational rise in the cost of technical solutions are proposed.

Key words

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№11|2022

DESIGNING WATER AND WASTEWATER SYSTEMS

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.11.02
UDC 628.171.001.24

Chupin R. V., Morozova Svetlana, Chupin V. R.

Designing water supply and wastewater disposal systems in conditions of fuzzy values of prospective water consumption and population base

Summary

Designing municipal water supply and wastewater disposal systems is associated with overcoming various uncertainties of an economic, technical, natural and anthropogenic nature. The most significant of these are the design loads in terms of water consumption and wastewater disposal, as well as the population base that will use these utilities in future years. For this reason, CP 31.13330.2021 recommends not specific values, however, a range of values for specific water consumption, for example, 165–180 l/(day·person). Which one shall be taken into account is the problem. At the same time, designers must understand that the risks that arise in case of overestimation or underestimation of design loads are very high, since in both cases reconstruction will be required involving huge financial investments. A new approach is proposed to substantiate the parameters of water supply and wastewater disposal systems based on a fuzzy representation of the prospective population base and specific water consumption. This approach is based on the study of the area of uncertainty by dividing it into intervals with weighted membership functions, as well as on the application of decision theory methods based on the financial risk matrix. Herewith, the risks are estimated through the life cycle cost under various project implementation scenarios. The developed approach is recommended to be used while substantiating the parameters of prospective water supply and wastewater disposal schemes.

Key words

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№11|2022

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.11.03
UDC 628.35

Kharkina O. V.

Comparison of the results of calculating aeration tanks according to the method of Danilovich–Epov and ASM2d model
(рart 2)

Summary

The analysis of the method for calculating aeration tanks proposed by D. A. Danilovich and A. N. Epov, based on the German ATV method, is continued. Due to certain limitations of the empirical ATV methodology developed on the basis of the data on the wastewater the authors were able to study, the ATV methodology cannot be applied anywhere except the treatment facilities where those studies were carried out. The Methodology has been compared with ASM2d model (a matrix of enzyme kinetics equations describing the growth rates of microorganisms and the rates of the corresponding biochemical processes), as well as with the NII VODGEO/SamGTU method that is a completely theoretical model, and the calculation formulas being enzyme kinetics equations. Calculations of aeration tanks according to the formulas of enzyme kinetics were laid down in SNiP «Sewerage. External Networks and Structures» in 1974; whereas in SNiP 1984, the calculation was given in the form of a proven methodology for biological treatment facilities for the oxidation of organic compounds. The empirical approach proposed in the Methodology opens not only a technological question about the scope of its application, but also the question of its expediency in general. The use of empirical approaches, to which the Methodology belongs, formally connects the inherent parameters in the form of invariable coefficients and empirical dependencies obtained experimentally in a narrow range of parameters and conditions of a particular object bringing the risks of significant errors. It is shown that the Methodology for municipal wastewater provides for underestimated volumes of aeration tanks by tens of percent compared with the results of calculations using the theoretical methods ASM2d and VODGEO/SamGTU developed by V. N. Shvetsov, S. V. Stepanov, K. M. Morozova that describe wastewater treatment processes using enzyme kinetics formulas. Herewith, it is shown that ASM2d and the VODGEO/SamGTU methodology give a high convergence of the results within differences of less than 10% which allows to speak about the robustness of the ASM2d model and the VODGEO/SamGTU methodology, and the limitations of the Method that can be used only for rough estimates.

Key words

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№11|2022

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.11.04
UDC 628.339:66.081.2.069.82

Kondrashev Viacheslav, Metelitsa Sergei

Removing ammonium ions from wastewater from bio toilets of railway coaches by blowing off

Summary

The results of studying the methods of wastewater treatment from environmentally friendly toilet complexes of Russian Railway coaches are presented. The wastewater contains pollutants typical of domestic wastewater, however, highly concentrated. Considered in detail is the method of removing ammonium ions from wastewater by blowing off. A brief analysis of literary sources is carried out. A description is given of an experimental setup for conducting research of removing ammonium from domestic wastewater and wastewater close in composition.

Key words

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№11|2022

WASTEWATER SYSTEMS

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.11.05
UDC 628.221

Volkov Sergei, Luk'ianchuk M. Iu., Zhukova Anastasiia, Zhitenev A. I., Rublevskaya O. N., Erofeev Vasilii, IGNATCHIK V. S., Ignatchik S. Iu., Kuznetsova N. V.

Economic efficiency of measures to provide for the surface runoff disposal systems adaptation to changing climate conditions

Summary

The process of economic justification of measures to provide for the surface runoff disposal systems adaptation to the new operating conditions comes down to solving an optimization problem where the maximum economic effect is assumed as the optimization criterion in the form of the difference between the cost of prevented damage from flooding of territories during the periods of heavy rains and the costs of investment and operating activity. The justification of this approach is obvious, since from a stochastic point of view it is impossible to completely eliminate flooding. Accordingly, the estimation of the effectiveness of adaptation measures should be based on the comparison of costs and benefits. The key elements of such an estimation, along with the justification of effective engineering solutions for adaptation, is the determination of the number of floods for the estimated period of time and the damage expected from them, i. e., the damage function that is the sum of the products of the probabilities of damage and its cost. In the Russian Federation the approach that takes into account the probability of flooding, is unrealizable at the regulatory level, since at the stage of hydraulic calculations, the probability of exceeding the calculated rain intensity is taken into account rather than water outcrop. In addition, in domestic practice, as an engineering measure for the adaptation of wastewater disposal systems, the method of network upgrade is mainly used which is the most expensive one compared to other alternative methods. Therefore, the effectiveness of applying the method of network upgrade in combination with the introduction of elements of a «green» infrastructure and regulation of wastewater flows is analyzed using the example of a pilot wastewater drainage area.

Key words

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№11|2022

ABROAD

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.11.06
UDC 628.35

Kofman V. Ya., Vishnevskii Mikhail, Baurina Aleksandra

Fungal cultures for the biodegradation of organic micropollutants in wastewater (a review)

Summary

Currently, the methods for removing organic micro-pollutions present in agricultural, industrial and domestic wastewater have been actively developed. The characteristic properties of these substances are chemical stability and potential toxicity. Organic micropollutants are believed to have a negative impact on the environment and human health, even in trace concentrations. Substances of this kind include pharmaceutically active substances, personal care products, endocrine disruptors, pesticides, industrial chemicals, etc. The traditional biological process based on bacterial cultures does not provide for the efficient biodegradation of these substances at the wastewater treatment facilities. Biodegradation using fungi that cause white rot of wood, represented mainly by basidiomycetes, including Pleurotus ostreatus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum, Irpex lacteus, is considered a relatively new, however, very promising method for removing organic micro-pollutants. In the environment, these fungi effectively destroy lignin to release the more easily metabolized carbohydrates – hemicellulose and cellulose. This process involves extracellular ligninolytic enzymes, organic acids, mediators and auxiliary enzymes. A distinctive feature of the enzymatic mechanism is its non-specificity, due to the action through the formation of free radicals. Owing to this property, fungal extracellular enzymes are able to transform a wide range of organic molecules including pollutants present in wastewater. Numerous studies have shown good results in the biodegradation of organic micropollutants, including on real wastewater, in a continuous mode and a wide range of operating conditions in the presence of autochthonous microorganisms.

Key words

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