07 2022

Number 8 / 2022

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№8|2022

LAWS, STANDARDS, NORMATIVES

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.08.01
UDC 628.2:006.3

Primin Oleg

New CP 517.1325800.2022 «Operation of the public water supply and wastewater disposal systems, structures»

Summary

The information on the new Code of Practice CP 517.1325800.2022 «Operation of the public water supply and wastewater disposal systems, structures» is presented. The development of the Code of Practice was carried out by the order of the Ministry of Construction of the Russian Federation as part of the national project «Housing and urban environment» up to the year 2024 in terms of providing for the improvement of the technical regulation system for updating the acting regulatory and technical documents for retrofitting advanced technologies and establishing restrictions on the use of obsolete technologies in design, construction and operation. The purpose of developing a new Code of Practice has been as follows: compiling a single document of the federal level that establishes the recommendations and industry regulatory requirements for all the basic stages of operating public systems and facilities for water supply and wastewater disposal; establishing comprehensive requirements that guarantee the adoption of the most effective and safe technical solutions based on the generalized experience in the design and operation of public water supply and wastewater disposal systems; accounting for the provisions put into force in the period 2019–2021 of the regulatory documents for the water industry; accounting for the results of scientific research. The Code of Practice reflects the current features of the operation of public systems and structures for water supply and wastewater disposal, taking into account the innovative methods and technologies for their repair, maintenance and reconstruction.

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№8|2022

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.08.02
UDC 628.161

FESENKO L. N., Ignatenko S. I., Fedotov R. V., Shchukin S. A., Kaberskaia Dar’ia, Paukova Dar’ia

The technology of two-stage purification of water with high concentration of iron and manganese

Summary

The results of laboratory studies and field tests of iron removal combined with the demanganation of underground water at the local treatment facilities of the Makhin farm in the Rostov Region are presented. The effect of iron removal and demanganation of underground water in the process flow scheme with artificial aeration, oxidation and subsequent one- and two-stage filtration has been established. The injection points and optimal doses of potassium permanganate and coagulant in the two-stage filtration scheme were determined. A process flow scheme of iron removal combined with the demanganation of underground water with iron content from 10 to 15 mg/dm3 and manganese concentration up to 3.2 mg/dm3 is proposed.

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№8|2022

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.08.03
UDC 628.35:628.16.067.3:581.526.325

Kevbrina M. V., Gavrilov Dmitrii, Belov N. A., Agarev Anton

Removing suspended solids from effluent in the process of tertiary treatment by microfiltration in disk filters with flat and volumetric filtration

Summary

Mosvodokanal JSC carried out tests of a pilot microfiltration plant based on a disk filter with a fabric filter cloth. The pilot plant supplied by Mediana-Filter RPC JSC has been designed for removing suspended solids from effluent in the process of tertiary treatment. Disk microfiltration with fabric filter cloth (volumetric filtration type) provides for removing suspended solids to 4 mg/l in the effluent after biological treatment while using fabric filter cloth of 10 µm typical size and to 2 mg/l while using 5 µm filter cloth. At 8.5 m/h filtration rate the consumption of wash water for the pilot plant for 10 µm filter cloth was 0.7–1.4% of the water flow, and 5.8–6.8% for 5 µm filter cloth. Beside suspended solids present in the suspension, COD, BOD5, total nitrogen and total phosphorus are also removed. Microfiltration plants of volumetric type are similar to the plants of flat type and can be used to ensure high quality tertiary treatment of effluent after biological treatment to remove suspended solids.

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№8|2022

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.08.04
UDC 628.35

Popov Nikita, Grigor’eva Anastasiia, Zalyotov S. V.

Experience in the reconstruction of the wastewater treatment facilities operated by MUE Teplovodokanal of Pushchino

Summary

In the early 1990s, after the introduction of new regulations for the quality of effluent, as well as due to a significant reduction in the available funding for water supply and wastewater disposal facilities, a tendency arose of a widespread violation of the requirements to the quality of wastewater treatment in the context of the impossibility of improving the situation. With the resumption of the economic growth at the beginning of the 21st century, Russia began to allocate public funds for the reconstruction of large-scale treatment facilities in order to provide for the required level of wastewater treatment by way of retrofitting advanced technologies. The access to financing for the reconstruction of wastewater treatment facilities is possible on the condition that the full-fledged project documentation that has passed the state expert appraisal is available. The experience of reconstructing small-scale wastewater treatment facilities in Pushchino that failed to be included into any budget financing program, is described. With the support and recommendations of relevant organizations and specialists, a list of measures was compiled for the stage-by-stage improvement of the wastewater treatment technology, taking into account the available funding. One of the first stages while implementing the measures was the introduction of the advanced technology for the biological removal of nutrients with the allocation of anaerobic and anoxic zones in traditional aeration tanks with mechanical activated sludge mixing. Russian-made vertical hyperbolic mixers were chosen as mixing devices. After the reconstruction of the first block of aeration tanks combined with the installation of mixers directly by the equipment supplier, the first positive results were obtained, i. e., the achieved indicators for organic substances and nitrogen group compounds were better than the required ones.

Key words

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№8|2022

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.08.05
UDC 628.35

Epov A. N., Danilovich Dmitrii

On the discussion on the comparison of methods for calculating aeration tanks with the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus (for the discussion)

Summary

The arguments of the authors of the book «Calculation and process engineering of processes and facilities for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from municipal wastewater» are given in response to the critical article by O. V. Khar’kina in the «VST» journal on the method proposed for calculating aeration tanks. Based on the literature review, it is shown that the calculation of aeration tanks in terms of the sludge age is not empirical, however based on the kinetic laws; and, herewith, in the field of application recommended by the authors, the use of a smaller number of empirical coefficients is required eliminating their choice. Explanations are given why accounting for the concentration of dissolved oxygen and calculation for the nitrite nitrogen concentrations less than 0.05 mg/l should not be included in the calculation procedure. Explanations are given for the dependence of kinetic coefficients on the concentrations in the effluent because of the change in the species composition of nitrifiers according to the theory of competitive exclusion of species. Information is provided on the successful comparison of the methods proposed by the authors with the simulation in the GPS-X program and on the operation of a new block of the Liubertsy Wastewater Treatment Facilities (Moscow), calculated according to the method. The operation of the block testifies to the complete sufficiency of the volume of the aerobic zone of the aeration tanks.

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№8|2022

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.08.06
UDC 628.35

Vilson Elena

Specific features of chemical phosphorus removal in the process of biological wastewater treatment

Summary

Wastewater treatment in public sanitation systems in settlements and urban districts has been the field of application of the best available technologies. For small and medium-sized treatment facilities, the concentration of phosphate phosphorus in the effluent is not regulated; for the facilities with a capacity of more than 10 thousand m3/day – it should not exceed 0.7 mg/dm3, while biological treatment and chemical removal of phosphorus is recommended. The issues of the chemical removal of phosphates and determination of the effect of the dose of aluminum-containing chemicals and pH value on the bacterial community of activated sludge by the identification component – protozoa, are considered. During the studies it was found that both the type of chemical and the point of its introduction into the biological treatment facilities affect the value of the optimal chemical dose; the reasons for changing the dose of the chemical depending on the introduction point were identified. While chemical solution is introduced into primary settling tanks, the dose can exceed the theoretically determined one by 4–5 times. The pH values of the chemical treatment system were determined as a factor of dependence on the initial concentrations of phosphates in wastewater, at which poorly soluble aluminum phosphates are formed. It has been established that the relationship between pH of the system and the concentration of dissolved aluminum phosphates has a key effect on the state of protozoa. While the required pH value is maintained, the doses of the aluminum-containing chemical can be high (up to 116 mg/l), however not resulting in the biodegradation of the sludge system. The introduction of coagulant solution into the nitrification zone of an aeration tank can result both in the degradation of sludge, and violation of MPC for dissolved aluminum and phosphorus in the effluent. Therefore, in case of supplying the coagulant solution to the end of the nitrifying aeration tank, chemical phosphorus removal can be enhanced by the additional alkalization of the sludge liquor.

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№8|2022

WASTE MANAGEMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.08.07
UDC 628.32:66.081.63

Shirkova T. N.

Solid waste landfill leachate treatment and utilization of reverse osmosis reject water

Summary

The leachate of solid water municipal landfills contains high concentrations of organic waste decomposition products and mineral salts. COD concentrations in organic substances can reach 5,000 mg/l; of ammonium ions – 2,500 mg/l; of total dissolved salts – 15,000 mg/l. In order to meet the current regulations on the discharges into the environment including fishery water bodies, the treatment of such wastes by two- or three-stage reverse osmosis is required. The performance of modern reverse osmosis membranes designed for demineralization of groundwater and sea water is low due to high salinity and COD levels ​​in wastewater. Experimentally, the main dependences of the required reject water flow on the degree of ammonium ion removal were obtained. The use of nanofiltration membranes provides for reducing the reject water flow and operating costs. For the utilization of the reverse osmosis reject water, separating the waste flow into the following streams is proposed: with a high concentration of organic substances and with a high concentration of mineral salts, such as sodium and ammonium chlorides.

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