01 2022

Number 1 / 2022

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№1|2022

PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.01.01
UDC 628.166

Vasiliak L. M., Koudryavtsev N. N., SMIRNOV A. D., Strelkov A. K.

Ultraviolet plus ultrasound, and why again «there are no analogues in the world»?

Summary

Ultrasound has not been widely practiced in the world as a water disinfection technology. It has a low energy efficiency of disinfection in comparison with ultraviolet irradiation, therefore cannot be applied on its own. The combined effect of ultrasound and UV-irradiation does not have a synergistic effect, since these photo-biological and physicochemical processes are different and independent from each other. There are no criteria and methods for monitoring the effectiveness of ultrasound disinfection. The use of ultrasound is not regulated by sanitary rules and guidelines related to the disinfection of drinking and waste water. Cleaning of quartz covers is carried out using mechanical systems and chemical rinsing; international equipment manufacturers do not use ultrasound for this purpose. Personnel protection from the harmful impact of ultrasound is required.

Key words

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№1|2022

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.01.02
UDC 502/504:004.413.4

KURANOV N. P., TIMOFEEVA E. A.

Expert and analytical assessment of the safety and risk
in analyzing the hazardous impact of techno-natural processes
on the facilities and environment

Summary

In accordance with the general provisions of the expert-analytical methodology for assessing the risk of hazardous impact of techno-natural processes of various origin on the facilities and environment, a method for calculating the risks of techno-natural processes is proposed. The method is based on a detailed analysis of research materials on the hazard level of processes and vulnerability of the facilities and environment, a quantitative assessment of the hazard level and degree of vulnerability, followed by the use of probit analysis to calculate the formation of risks. For the classification of safety and risk levels adopted for work, the criteria are determined and their values are defined that provide for assessing the levels of safety and risks of hazardous techno-natural processes of various origin. The proposed method for assessing the risks of techno-natural processes is illustrated by a more detailed study of the classification and assessment of the safety and risks of hydraulic engineering structures of different categories.

Key words

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№1|2022

LAWS, STANDARDS, NORMATIVES

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.01.03
UDC 006.3:699.814

Boldyrev Vladimir Vasil'evich, Kozhenov Iurii, Kirilenko Viktor

Experience of using СP 10.13130.2020 in designing internal fire-fighting water lines for buildings

Summary

Proposals are given for adjusting CP 10.13130.2020 «Fire protection systems. Internal fire-fighting water lines. Design rules and regulations» with account of the experience of designing internal water supply systems for buildings and structures. The need for adjustments is due to the following reasons: the use of new terms in the text of the code of practice instead of the historically established and currently used in other regulatory documents; the presence of erroneous recommendations; the lack of the correct information on the initial pressure value as well as on the type of the diaphragm being calculated with the use of a nomograph (with sharp or thickened edges); the lack of the information on the mutual influence of the valve and the diaphragm being taken into account. It is proposed to replace the new terms included in the code of practice with already known ones (a list of such terms with recommendations for their replacement is given) so that the new terms do not conflict with other regulatory documents. It is proposed to eliminate erroneous recommendations regarding the use of elevated and hydropneumatics water tanks as a means of increasing pressure in the internal fire-fighting water line. It is concluded that engineering calculations based on the nomograph provide for the sufficient accuracy for almost all types of diaphragms 3–4 mm thick. An exception is the diaphragm installed at the outlet of the direct-flow fire valve. For this diaphragm the relative deviation of the results of applying the nomograph and methods known from hydraulics is more than 25% due to the mutual influence of the local resistances.

Key words

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№1|2022

WATER INTAKES

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.01.04
UDC 628.112.24:622.245.71

Opryshko B. A., Shvetsov V. A., Belavina O. A.

Improved design of the head of an emergency blowing well

Summary

An improved design of the head is proposed, that belongs to the technical means designed to prevent outflows from emergency blowing wells not equipped with a connecting flange at the drinking groundwater intakes. The use of the head, in comparison with similar devices, provides for the following advantages: a decrease in metal consumption by about 50%, a decrease in labor factory hours by about 80%. Testing and retrofitting the head of the proposed design were carried out at No. 44 exploratory well of the Bystrinskoe ground drinking water deposit (the Kamchatka Region).

Key words

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№1|2022

WASTE DISPOSAL

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.01.05
UDC 628.336.3:544.723.21

Gorelaia Olesia, Romanovskii Valentin

Effect of the dose of the reducing agent on the properties
of magnetic sorbents from the deironing plant wastes

Summary

The results of the synthesis of sorbents prepared from the deironing plant wastes for the purification of oily wastewater using various doses of the reducing agent are presented. The reducing agent used was glycine, urea, citric acid, and hexamethylenetetramine with an «oxidizing agent – reducing agent» mole ratio equal to 1 (f = 1) and 3 (f = 3). The study and comparison of the properties of synthesized magnetic sorbents obtained at different initiation temperatures of an exothermic synthesis reaction with an «oxidizing agent – reducing agent» mole ratio equal to 1 (f = 1) and 3 (f = 3) were carried out: total static exchange capacity, specific surface area and oil capacity.

Key words

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№1|2022

WASTE DISPOSAL

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.01.06
UDC 628.16.065.2:553.635.1

Kamarou Maksim, Kamluk Tat’iana

Synthetic gypsum prepared from natural water coagulation sludge

Summary

The results of studies on the preparation of gypsum from waste sulfuric acid from the production of chemical fibers, and calcium-containing waste sludge generated in the process of natural water coagulation, are presented. During the synthesis of spent sulfuric acid and coagulation sludge, calcium sulfate dihydrate with crystals of a given size and shape is formed, as well as a by-product – a filtrate with a high concentration of Mg, Na, S and Ca. The availability of these elements opens up the potential of using the filtrate as a microfertilizer, and ferrous sulfate (about 11 wt. %) as a coagulant. The availability of iron in the filtrate also opens up the doors to using it as a precursor for the production of catalytic materials for removing dissolved organic substances from wastewater by photocatalytic treatment, or for the production of sorption materials for removing oil products from wastewater. Iron in these materials will give them additional magnetic properties to enhance their extraction from the treated aqueous media. The technical and economic analysis showed that using the filtrate significantly increases the investment efficiency of the proposed technological process.

Key words

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№1|2022

DESIGNING WASTEWATER SYSTEMS

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.01.07
UDC 628.24

Ten A. E.

Analysis of methods for hydraulic calculation of surface runoff disposal systems

Summary

In the context of the improvement of advanced domestic and international technologies, materials and treatment equipment used to protect the environment from anthropogenic pollution, designing new systems for the removal and treatment of surface runoff and methods for their calculation that involve the latest achievements of the sectoral science and technology and optimization of the algorithm for performing operations and practical techniques for their hydraulic calculation, is of special actuality. Currently, domestic and international companies have entered the Russian market offering innovative designs of surface runoff disposal systems that have a wide range of applications owing to their design, operational features and the ability to withstand heavy loads. An example of such an innovative design of an open surface runoff disposal systems is ASO Qmax system. The analysis of international and domestic approaches to the hydraulic calculation of surface runoff disposal systems, of the possibility of their adaptation to the Russian conditions is presented.

Key words

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№1|2022

ABROAD

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.01.08
UDC 628.355:543.635.355:504.7

Kofman V. Ya.

Upcoming trends of processing waste activated sludge.
Preparation of volatile fatty acids (a review)

Summary

Among the methods of obtaining products with higher added value from waste activated sludge, produced avoiding the emission of greenhouse gases, anaerobic digestion is considered as a viable alternative to biogas production to obtain volatile fatty acids as the final product, that are an intermediate product of methane production in the traditional process. The main factors affecting the production of volatile fatty acids are considered, including pH value, temperature, C/N ratio, process duration, organic matter load of the fermenter, and the presence of microelements. An effective way of increasing the yield of volatile fatty acids is the combined digestion of waste activated sludge and substrates with a high organic carbon concentration (food waste, corn stover, manure, wastewater from dairy and pulp-and-paper production, filtrate from solid waste landfills), as well as pretreatment methods: physical (ultrasonic, microwave, thermal), chemical (alkaline treatment, free nitrous acid, metallic iron, peroxomonosulfate, etc.) and biological (biological surfactants, hydrolytic enzymes, hydrolytic bacteria) ones. The main fields of application of volatile fatty acids are presented including the preparation of medium-chain fatty acids, the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates, protein of single-cell organisms, electricity, hydrogen, as well as the use as a carbon source in the process of biological nitrogen removal.

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№1|2022

МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫЕ ВЫСТАВКИ И КОНФЕРЕНЦИИ

 

FESENKO L. N.

XIII Международная научно-практическая конференция «ТЕХНОВОД–2021»

Аннотация

14–17 декабря 2021 года в г. Сочи (Красная Поляна) прошла очередная, тринадцатая по счету, международная научно-практическая конференция «Технологии очистки воды» – «­ТЕХНОВОД».


 

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