04 2022

Number 4 / 2022

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№4|2022

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.04.01
UDC 628.1

Demin A. P.

The current situation with supplying the population of the Crimean Peninsula with clean drinking water

Summary

The work object was studying the issues of supplying the population of Crimea with clean drinking water after the reunification with the Russian Federation. The studies used statistical materials from Rosvodresursy, Rospotrebnadzor, Krymstat, the Ministry of Ecology and the Ministry of Resorts of the Republic of Crimea. The data on the dynamics of water consumption for drinking and household needs in the Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol is given. An increase in the number of public water supply sources not equipped with a sanitary protection zone is shown. The share of the urban housing stock equipped with running water significantly exceeds the share of the rural housing stock. The growing deterioration of the water supply network is the main reason for the increase of water leaks. In 2014–2020, leaks in the Crimean water supply network increased from 63.2 to 96.8 million m3, or by 53%, and on a per 1 km basis of networks – from 4.7 to 7.4 thousand m3 (57%). There is a decrease in the average daily water consumption per person in the territory of the peninsula and in the main resorts of Crimea. The share of the population and the number of municipalities supplied with imported water is increasing. The deterioration of water quality in the sources of drinking water supply, including in municipalities, is shown. A decrease in the share of the population supplied with safe drinking water was revealed in the Republic of Crimea, Sevastopol. Some proposals for the sustainable water use in the conditions of the growing shortage are given.

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№4|2022

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.04.02
UDC 628.161.3:628.168.3

Seliukov Aleksandr, Raff P. A., Mishina T. F.

Pre-project in-process testing river water purification in the Arctic Circle

Summary

The results of pre-project in-process testing purification of water of the Vary-Khadyta River, the source of drinking and domestic water supply for the village of Yar-Sale (Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug), are presented. Throughout the year the permissible concentration of iron, manganese, suspended solids and compounds in the river water that cause the water color is exceeded. Low temperatures, alkalinity and salinity result in the low level of water stability (Langelier index from –3.8 to –1.1 points). Water treatment facilities in Yar-Sale village (WTF-50) do not provide for the standard quality of purified water. This due to both incorrect water treatment technology that involves only filtration for clarification, and an incomplete set of chemicals required to produce drinking water. During the upgrade of the treatment facilities replacing the technology with the traditional clarification flow scheme (sedimentation – filtration) because of the periodic use of high doses of coagulant, as well as supplementing the chemical treatment with processes of alkalization and oxidation of the river water manganese with potassium permanganate was proposed. To assign the design modes of chemical water treatment, in-process tests were carried out under the conditions of the WTF of Yar-Sale village. For clarification and color removal, the chemicals used at the WTF of Yar-Sale village were applied (POHA «Aqua-Aurat-30TM» coagulant, flocculant Praestol 2530). It is shown that using only these chemicals did not provide for the standard quality of drinking water. To enhance the efficiency of purification, it is proposed to carry out chemical treatment in two stages: upstream the sedimentation tanks – alkalization, coagulation and flocculation, then upstream the filters – additional alkalization, oxidation of manganese with potassium permanganate and additional flocculation. The operational doses of chemicals were determined, that ensure the production of stable drinking water meeting the requirements of the current regulatory documents. Based on the test results obtained, a standard operating procedure for designing the upgrade of the WTF-50 of Yar-Sale village was developed.

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№4|2022

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.04.03
UDC 502.51(282):504.5

Trifonova Tat’iana, Chesnokova S. M., Savel'ev O. V.

Estimating the effect of synthetic surfactants on the ecosystem
of a small watercourse

Summary

The results of studying the impact of anionic surfactants on the physicochemical and biochemical processes in the ecosystem of a small eutrophic watercourse by laboratory modeling are presented. It has been established that anionic surfactants inhibit nitrification processes in proportion to their concentration in water; migration of phosphates from bottom deposits occurs intensively in the concentration range of 0.02–0.1 mg/dm3, which is equivalent of the level of the studied watercourse pollution. At the concentration of anionic surfactants from 1.2 to 4 mg/dm3 in the model solution, the migration of phosphate ions from the bottom deposits deceased. Correlation analysis was used to study the effect of the composition of water and bottom deposits on the mobility degree of phosphate ions in the watercourse ecosystem.

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№4|2022

SURFACE RUNOFF TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.04.04
UDC 628.355

Zoubov M. G., Vilson Elena, Litvinenko Viacheslav, Kadrevich Artem

Biological treatment of surface runoff from industrial sites
in bioreactors with brush media

Summary

Surface runoff from industrial sites differs not only in the irregularity in formation, but also in the concentration of specific substances typical for the production process, as well as in the pollution concentrations changing over time. For example, surface runoff from airfields during the cold season contains anti-icing fluids, most of these contain ethylene glycol. Surface runoff of fertilizer factories contain high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds and low concentrations of organic pollutants identified by BOD. Biological treatment of this runoff in vitro is not carried out, as a rule. The results of studies by «ECOSTECH» R&D Center (a company of ECOS Group) are presented, indicating the feasibility of biological treatment of this type of surface runoff using immobilized bacterial cultures on a biomass carrier – brush media. The attached biomass is specified by the bacterial cells immersed in the matrix remaining active for a long time under the conditions of the absence of wastewater or contaminants to which the biocenosis is oriented. Once the supply of wastewater with high concentrations of ethylene glycol is resumed, the bioreactor reaches the regime of biodegradation within a week eliminating the introduction of a special bacterial culture into the facility. According to the studies, reaching the stationary operating conditions of the bioreactor with brush media for all indicators (ethylene glycol, COD, BOD5, nitrogen forms) takes less than nine days. Also presented are the results of studies on the treatment of surface runoff from fertilizer production enterprises or fertilizer terminals. Biological treatment of this type of surface runoff is specified by the use of the Anammox process.

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№4|2022

SURFACE RUNOFF TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.04.05
UDC 628.33:628.212.2

Vereshchagina Lidiia, Khudiakova Dar’ia, Gromov Grigorii

Principal directions for improving process flow schemes and designs of units for surface runoff treatment

Summary

The issues of surface runoff treatment from the territories of communities of various functional purposes are considered, in particular, the improvement of process flow schemes and designs of low-capacity local treatment facilities of flow-through or storage type, that discharge the effluents into the public wastewater disposal systems and water bodies. The features of the organization of systems for the surface runoff disposal and treatment, as well as the provisions of the water and environmental legislation of the Russian Federation and design code that have come into force over the past 2 years are given. It is noted that in the context of the transition of the federal regulation of wastewater discharge to technological regulation based on the best available technologies, the scope of small-capacity facilities of flow-through and storage type tends to expand. This is due to the fact that the customers are allowed to use them while discharging surface runoff into the public wastewater disposal systems of the communities, provided the quality of effluents received by these systems comply with the regulatory requirements. Principal schemes of the flow-through and storage type facilities for surface runoff treatment in combination with tertiary treatment plants are given. Casings of underground tanks and vessels, including improved flow-through units for the primary mechanical treatment of surface runoff, are made of fiberglass pipes of increased ring stiffness and durability.

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№4|2022

SURFACE RUNOFF TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.04.06
UDC 628.212.2/.316

Grekov Mikhail, Elagin Sergei, Kozinets Galina, Chechevichkin Viktor, Leonov L. V., Klokov Aleksandr, Chechevichkin A. V., Iakunin L. A.

Test operation of a two-stage plant based on FOPS® filters
for the enhanced treatment of surface runoff

Summary

Moto transport has been the main source of pollution of surface runoff in large cities; therefore, runoff from roads and car parking spaces must be subjected to enhanced treatment including several stages. As part of solving this problem, works were carried out to estimate the operation of a two-stage plant (based on sequentially operating FOPS®-S and FOPS®-MU filters) in the process of surface runoff treatment from the car parking spaces during various seasonal changes. As a result of test experiments, it was found that for 21 months the plant provided for 98–99% efficiency of removing suspended solids and 94–97% efficiency of removing oil products from the surface runoff. After three years operation including winter periods with below-zero temperatures to less than –20°C, the plant provided for the required treatment level according to the monitored parameters. Occasionally, the FOPS®-S filter was cleaned – removing suspended solids and oil products.

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№4|2022

PIPELINE SYSTEMS

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.04.07
UDC 621.644

Chupin R. V., Morozova Svetlana, Bober Viktor

Substantiation of the diameters of pipelines of water supply
and wastewater disposal systems based on minimizing the costs of their life cycle

Summary

While designing urban water supply and wastewater disposal systems, substantiating the diameter of pipelines, the flow rate of water and wastewater is required. The existing approaches and regulatory requirements set forth in CP 31.13330.2012 are based, among other things, on the economic indicators calculated on the basis of the overhead costs for the construction and operation of water supply and wastewater disposal systems. At the same time, according to GOST R 587885-2019, the choice of a design option should be based on the life cycle costs of these systems. A method is proposed for calculating the optimal values ​​of pipe diameters and the velocity of water and waste liquid in pipelines based on the costs of their life cycle. The conducted numerical experiments showed that the optimal values ​​of the velocity depend on the flow rate of water and waste liquid, the cost of electricity and the number of years of the life cycle of water supply and wastewater disposal systems. New formulas are proposed for calculating economically justified values ​​of the velocity of water and wastewater for steel, cast iron and polyethylene pipes.

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