06 2022

Number 6 / 2022

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№6|2022

ВОДОКАНАЛЫ РОССИИ

 

Luzgin Evgenii

Водоканал Екатеринбурга: итоги работы и планы на будущее

Аннотация

По итогам 2021 г. качество подаваемой населению г. Екатеринбурга питьевой воды по показателям нормативов СанПиН стало значительно лучше. Так, среднегодовое содержание железа в холодной воде в 4 раза меньше допустимой концент­рации, хлора – в 7 раз, свинца – в 20 раз, меди – в 100 раз. Качество очищенных стоков, которые попадают в реку Исеть, по ряду химико-биологических показателей также вышло на принципиально новый уровень, что оказывает существенное влияние на экологию региона и здоровье жителей. В перс­пективе результаты будут еще лучше, так как работы на объектах не останавливаются, а цели у «Водоканала» города Екатеринбурга амбициозные.

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№6|2022

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.06.01
UDC 628.35

Smirnov Aleksandr Vladimirovich, Babichev Aleksandr, Fediunin Viacheslav, Fediunin Viacheslav

Improving the environmental safety of the Urals: upgrading the Southern Wastewater Treatment Plant in Yekaterinburg

Summary

The Ural region has been traditionally considered the «backbone» of Russia with the center in Yekaterinburg. The environmental safety of the region is largely ensured by wastewater treatment at the Northern and Southern municipal wastewater treatment plants. The current upgrade of the Southern Wastewater Treatment Plant has become the biggest over the past 7 years: 345 million rubles have already been invested in the building, installation works and equipment. In 2022, the allocated finance will be another 120 million rubles. In the process of reconstruction and modernization of the Southern Wastewater Treatment Plant the mechanical sludge dewatering facilities were subject to upgrade resulting in the double reduction of the generated wastes. More than 70% of aeration tanks (8 of 11 sections) were reconstructed with a complete replacement of the aeration system, and secondary clarifiers were reconstructed with the replacement of sludge sucker (6 of 15 tanks). In general, the upgrade of the biological treatment facilities provided for increasing the environmental performance and improving the state of the ecosystem of the Iset River.

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№6|2022

WATER RECYCLING SYSTEMS

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.06.02
UDC 628.335.1

GALKIN Yu. A., Ermakov Denis, Obadin Dmitrii

Development of the technology and results of commissioning the recycling water system of a continuous pipe-rolling plant

Summary

«ECO-PROJECT» Research and Development Company, LLC has developed an innovative technology of recycling water supply for continuous pipe-rolling plants (CPRU) at ironworks. While using traditional, conceptually similar technologies, including coagulation-flocculation, thin-lamellar sedimentation, clarifying filtration and operation in a wastewater free mode, the concentration of suspended solids (iron scale) and mineral oils in the prepared recycling water is several times higher than that regulated by the CPRU manufacturers. The reason is the high concentration of soluble phosphates in the processed recycling water that are stabilizers of disperse systems coming from the rolling process and concentrating during recycling. The low efficiency of sedimentation results in the colmatage of the filtering media of the clarification filters, their decommissioning, forced blowing of up to 30% or more of contaminated recycling water into the industrial storm sewer, and overspending massively more of makeup natural water. The high concentration of mineral oils and abrasiveness of the solid phase of the generated sludge result in the colmatage of the filter press membranes, generation of heavily contaminated centrate that is difficult to clean, and wear of the centrifuges. The developed technology provides for: the removal of phosphates from 5% of the initial recycling water by adding lime milk, CO2 recarbonization of flue gases and clarification; elimination of unreasonable discharge of spent phosphate-containing process lubricant into the recycling water; single-stage coagulation-flocculation treatment of all the feed water in highly efficient sedimentation tanks-flocculators of the EP OF type; gravity chemical-free dewatering in structurally simple OKUD type units. The package of process solutions provides for preparing recycling water of standard quality and eliminating the discharge into the environment; processing scale-oil-containing sludge with a moisture content of 30% for the utilization in metallurgy; reducing the dimensions of the water treatment plants, operating and capital costs. The technology was implemented in the CPRU recycling water supply system of one of the pipe factories with reaching all the design target values.

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№6|2022

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.06.03
UDC 628.35:665.666.6

Kevbrina M. V., Гаврилов Д. В., Belov N. A., Agarev Anton

Analysis of the operation of acidifiers after the reconstruction of the block of the Liuberetskie Wastewater Treatment Facilities

Summary

Municipal wastewater in Moscow after primary settling contains insufficient organic matter for the sustainable removal of nitrogen and phosphorus to the standard quality during treatment. Therefore, while designing the reconstruction of the old block of the Liuberetskie Wastewater Treatment Facilities in Moscow, the acidification (prefermentation) method was chosen as the most efficient process solution for enriching wastewater with easily decomposable organic matter (obtaining organic acids during acidic fermentation of raw sludge from primary settling tanks). Upon the completion of the reconstruction of the old LWWTF block at the end of 2021, primary sludge acidifiers were put into operation. Launching acidifiers provided for enriching primary water with easily decomposable organic matter (volatile fatty acids, including acetate) resulting in the improved efficiency of denitrification and biological dephosphorization processes in the aeration tanks. Two or three weeks after the acidifiers had been put into the operation mode, the quality of effluent for nitrogen as nitrates and phosphorus as phosphates was meeting the MPC for fisheries. The process parameters of the acidifiers (hydraulic retention time, residence time for dry matter, the rate of volatile fatty acids formation, the degree of recirculation, the dry matter concentration in the incoming flow) corresponded to those recommended in the literature. Possible situations of abnormal operation of acidifiers have been analyzed and recommendations have been developed to eliminate the causes.

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№6|2022

WASTEWATER SYSTEM RELIABILITY

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.06.04
UDC 628.2:62-192

Yermolin Yu. A.

Sewer network reliability control

Summary

The fundamental possibility of the sewer network reliability control by developing (with subsequent implementation) mid- and long-term plans for its renovation according to the criterion of the minimum possible environmental risk is discussed. As a quantitative measure, an indicator of the operational reliability of the network is considered, i.e., the relative volume of wastewater not delivered to the treatment facilities because of the failures of the network structural elements. The assumptions and limitations of such control attributable to the specific features of the object, are discussed. An algorithm for developing a network renovation plan according to the environmental criterion is proposed using the method of object segmentation and equivalenting.

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№6|2022

PRACTITIONER OPINION

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.06.05
UDC 001.89:628.1/.4

Prodous O. A., Shipilov A. A., Iakubchik P.

Efficient management structure of sectoral science in the field of water supply and wastewater disposal (by way of discussion)

Summary

The analysis of the management structure of the water supply and wastewater disposal sector applied in the country is given. The shortcomings of this system are shown. A new organization scheme for the management of water supply and wastewater disposal is proposed. The general principles and main directions are described. The proposed scheme for organizing the management of water supply and wastewater disposal will allow the state authorities (Ministry of Construction of the Russian Federation): to sort out priorities in the implementation of ambitious national projects in the regions of the country; plan and prioritize the investment of financial resources for the implementation of these projects; ensure, through expert examination of the projects, their current technical and technology level; guarantee and reasonably ensure the energy efficiency of the projects. It is proposed to prepare information on the developed scheme of the sectoral management to be considered on the legislative level.

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№6|2022

WASTE MANAGEMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.06.06
UDC 628.316.12

Vardanian Margarit

Ash and slag wastes of coals as promising sorbents of metal ions

Summary

The toughening requirements to the efficiency of wastewater treatment containing heavy metal ions call for searching new physical and chemical methods using inexpensive available materials as sorbents. The results of using ash and slag wastes generated at the heat and power plants operated by PJSC Irkutskenergo in Bratsk during the combustion of brown coal of the Irbeisk deposit in the process of removing iron (III) and aluminum ions from simulated solutions by sorption purification are presented. The specified wastes are not dangerous and have the form of a heterogeneous mixture of various mineral formations, predominantly calcium and magnesium carbonates (more than 50% by weight). Separate simulated solutions containing Fe3+ and Al3+ ions were prepared from state standard reference samples. The pH value was measured by the potentiometric method using Anion 4100 ion meter with silver chloride and glass electrodes. Iron and aluminum were determined according to the accepted methods. The results of the laboratory experiments have shown that the process of removing metals is accompanied by neutralization and alkalization of initially acidic solutions. The pH values obtained in this case exceed the initial values of metal hydroxide precipitation approaching pH of their complete precipitation with the addition of optimal amounts of ash and slag wastes. It is shown that the precipitated metal hydroxides are poorly soluble; therefore, if stored at the site of the sludge dump, they will have no negative impact on the environment. It has been established that the purification efficiency, depending on the process parameters, is 93–99 and 80–95% for Fe3+ and Al3+, respectively.

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№6|2022

WASTE MANAGEMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.06.07
UDC 628.544:54-414

Moniak Tat’iana, Romanovskii Valentin

Magnetic sorbents from galvanic sludge for oily wastewater treatment

Summary

The results of studying the properties of sorbents prepared from galvanic sludge in relation to oil products are presented. For the synthesis, the method of solution combustion synthesis was chosen. Glycine was used as a reducing agent in a stoichiometric ratio with the oxidizing agent. X-ray phase analysis of the obtained samples showed that they contained iron mainly in the form of a magnetite phase. The total static exchange capacity and specific surface area of the synthesized sorbent samples (up to 130 m2/g) were determined from the sorption of the methylene blue dye. The oil capacity of the obtained materials (up to 3 g/g) is not inferior to the natural sorbents of oil products. Preparing magnetic oil sorbents is possible by the combined use of waste iron and nickel-containing galvanic sludges resulting in the reduction of the negative anthropogenic impact on the environment and elimination of the expensive technologies.

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№6|2022

УТИЛИЗАЦИЯ ОТХОДОВ

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.06.08
УДК 544.526:628.169

Pilipenko Marina

Comparative analysis of photocatalysts from de-ironing plant wastes

Summary

The results of the synthesis of photocatalysts prepared from de-ironing plant wastes are presented. To improve the efficiency, iron-containing materials were doped with zinc, molybdenum, and lanthanum. For the synthesis, the method of solution combustion synthesis was chosen. Urea, citric acid and glycine in stoichiometric ratio were taken as reducing agents. The obtained samples were studied by X-ray phase analysis. The efficiency of the obtained materials was studied in the process of photocatalytic destruction of four dyes of different origin. Based on the results of the work, the optimal compositions and reducing agents used for their synthesis were determined.

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