12 2022

Number 12 / 2022

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№12|2022

WATER SOURCES QUALITY MONITORING

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.12.01
UDC 614.77:628.161

Strelkov A. K., Bykova P. G., Palagin Evgenii

On the state of the water quality in the Kuibyshev and Saratov water reservoirs and the prospects for one- and two-stage treatment schemes

Summary

The results of studying the physical and chemical composition of the source water of the Kuibyshev and Saratov water reservoirs at the water intake sites operated by Avtogradvodokanal LLC, Tolyatti Urban District, and Samara Utility Systems LLC, Samara Urban District, for 2015–2021 are presented. Limiting values ​​of 59 indicators of the water quality of the Kuibyshev water reservoir and 52 indicators of the Saratov water reservoir have been established. The water in both water reservoirs polluted with resistant to oxidation organic substances, can be referred to the III hazard class and is assessed as «moderately polluted». In the water of the Kuibyshev reservoir increased concentrations of phytoplankton and zooplankton were found. The reservoir water needs physical and chemical treatment before being supplied to the consumers. It is shown that the physical and chemical composition of the water of the Kuibyshev water reservoir in terms of turbidity, concentration of phytoplankton and zooplankton is worse than the water composition in the Saratov water reservoir; therefore, it requires additional treatment before being supplied to the treatment plant.

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№12|2022

DISCUSSING REGULATORY DOCUMENTS

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.12.02
UDC 696.11:006.3

Strelkov A. K., Zotov Yu. N., Mikhailova I. I.

Regulatory requirements and their practical implementation in the process of calculating water supply systems for apartment buildings

Summary

The article is devoted to the analysis of the amendments to the requirements in legal documents and their practical implementation in the codes of practice in relation to the hydraulic calculation of the inhouse water supply systems of apartment buildings. An overview of the main amendments to the legal documents regarding the functional affiliation of inhouse water supply systems and their maintenance in apartment buildings is given. There is a functional-targeted insufficiency of the methodology and the lack in the current federal-level regulatory and technical documents of the methods for hydraulic calculation of water supply systems for apartment buildings that provide for their design characteristics complying with the mandatory requirements of the federal laws «On Technical Regulation», «Urban Development Code of the Russian Federation» and «Technical Regulations on Safety of Buildings and Structures». Technological approaches are considered in the regulation of water consumption in the water supply systems of apartment buildings. Recommendations are presented on the development of methodological procedures, that being applied will ensure the legal legitimacy of the methods for hydraulic calculation of centralized cold and hot water supply systems in apartment buildings.

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№12|2022

DISCUSSING REGULATORY DOCUMENTS

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.12.03
UDC 628.31

Palagin Evgenii, Strelkov A. K., Pavlukhin A. A., Bykova P. G.

On the regulation of surface runoff handling

Summary

An analysis of a number of amendments included in the current version of CP 32.13330.2018 «SNiP 2.04.03-85 Sewerage. Pipelines and wastewater treatment plants», in terms of designing systems for the surface runoff disposal and treatment, as well as possible options for regulating surface runoff discharges into public wastewater disposal systems and water bodies, taking into account the requirements of the current environmental legislation is presented. An assessment of the effect of the negative environmental impact category of the enterprise on the regulatory requirements to discharged wastewater is given. It is shown under what conditions and under what category it is advisable for an enterprise to operate its own surface runoff outfall to a water body or discharge wastewater into a public sewer.

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№12|2022

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.12.04
UDC 628.35

Stepanov S. V., Avdeenkov Pavel, Ponomarenko Ol’ga, MOROZOVA K. M.

Results of studying biological treatment of wastewater of an egg processing enterprise in a pilot membrane bioreactor

Summary

The results of studies on the biological treatment of wastewater of an enterprise for advanced processing of chicken eggs in a pilot membrane bioreactor (MBR) with preliminary denitrification are presented. It is shown that the key indicator of pollution the treatment facilities shall be calculated on is BODtotal. At loads on the ash-free basis of activated sludge according to BODtotal from 0.06 to 0.125g/(g·day) for raw wastewater and from 0.04 to 0.12g/(g·day) for wastewater after preliminary coagulation and settling, BODtotal of permeate was 8–12 mg/l, and the concentrations of ammonium and nitrite met the MPC for fishery water bodies. The minimum recirculation that provided for the concentration of nitrate nitrogen in the effluent at the MPC level, turned out to be eight-fold for raw wastewater and six-fold for the pre-coagulated one. The inert part of COD was about 90 mg/l. On the basis of the executed studies the kinetic constants of the oxidation of organic substances required for the calculation of industrial biological treatment facilities were determined: ρ´max for BODtotal – 29.9 and 30.4 mg/(g·h), Km for BODtotal – 34.7 and 25.2 mg/l for raw wastewater and wastewater after preliminary physical and chemical treatment, respectively. The total volumes of bioreactors with a capacity of 600m3/day, operating with an activated sludge dose of 8 g/l according to the MBR technology with preliminary denitrification, while providing for the treatment level of BODtot of 12 mg/l and removing nitrogen compounds to the MPC for fishery water bodies, amounted to 3716 and 1643m3 for raw wastewater and wastewater after preliminary physical and chemical treatment, respectively.

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№12|2022

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.12.05
UDC 628.35

Andreev Sergei, Stepanov S. V., Strelkov A. K.

Mathematical modeling of the wastewater biological treatment process in a plug flow aeration tank

Summary

The results of theoretical studies of the kinetics of the processes of biochemical oxidation of organic wastewater pollution by activated sludge microorganisms are presented. It is shown that the value of the average effective value of the specific rate of organic wastewater pollution oxidation by the activated sludge in a plug flow aeration tank can be determined using the theorem on the average value of the continuous function f(L) integrated in a certain range of its variable from Lн to Lк. By integrating the Michaelis–Menten equation, a mathematical model was obtained based on the fundamental regularities of enzymatic kinetics that describes the process of biological oxidation of organic pollutants in a plug flow aeration tank. The use of the proposed equations will provide for determining the average effective values ​​of the specific oxidation rates of various organic pollutants (BOD, oil products, surfactants, phenols, etc.), the estimated duration of aerobic processes; and thereby, optimizing the design and operation of biological wastewater treatment facilities in plug flow aeration tanks.

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№12|2022

WATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.12.06
UDC 621.395.623.3

Strelkov A. K., Tsabilev O. V., Gridneva M. A.

Vibromembrane filtration technology: eliminating the negative effect of concentration polarization (international experience)

Summary

Представлена уникальная технология мембранного разделения жидкостей VSEP, которая позволяет минимизировать негативное влияние концентрационной поляризации. Отличие технологии заключается в вибрации поверхности мембран. В результате достигается ряд ключевых преимуществ технологии. Все это существенно раздвигает границы использования мембранных методов и делает возможным применение мембран там, где ранее это было невозможно. Кроме того, процесс разделения различных жидкостей не требует использования антискалянтов, а рабочие значения удельной производительности установок и выхода фильт­рата значительно превышают таковые в традиционных системах мембранного разделения. Технология уже находит массовое применение в мировой инженерной практике для самых различных отраслей промышленности.

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№12|2022

WASTEWATER SYSTEMS

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.12.07
UDC 628.21

Strelkov A. K., Gorshkalev P. A., Gridneva M. A., D’iachkov Vladislav

The system of operation of the Samara Region sewerage system

Summary

The results of analyzing the operation of the Samara Region sewerage system are presented. The state bodies have been involved in supervising the operation of sewer networks and wastewater disposal facilities. Information is given on the number of wastewater treatment facilities located in the municipalities of the Samara Region, and their affiliation with operating organizations. Through the example of the Bezenchukskii District of the Samara Region, the system of operating the sewerage system is considered. Subsequent to the results of the surveys of the wastewater treatment facilities a comparison was made of the actual inflow of wastewater with the design characteristics of the facilities, the quality of effluent based on MPC for fishery water bodies. Conclusions are drawn on the specific features of the operation of the facilities, taking into account the changes in the qualitative and quantitative indicators of raw wastewater.

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№12|2022

ABROAD

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.12.08
UDC 628.316:544.772:614.446

Kofman V. Ya., Vishnevskii Mikhail, Baurina Aleksandra

Bioaerosols at wastewater treatment facilities: sources, composition, sanitary and epidemiological risks (a review)

Summary

Attention to the issue of bioaerosol emissions in the process of wastewater treatment has increased with reports about wastewater aerosolization as a potential source of SARS-CoV-2 virus exposure to the air during the recent COVID-19 pandemic; however, the impact of exposure to bioaerosols on the health of the people with compromised immunity, personnel of treatment facilities and population of adjacent territories has been reported earlier. Emission of bioaerosols occurs at various stages of the technological process (mechanical treatment, biological treatment, wastewater sludge treatment). The amount of bioaerosols formed depends on the hydrodynamic conditions of wastewater treatment, type of treatment plant (closed or open), wastewater composition, treatment technology used, technical characteristics of the equipment, capacity of the treatment facilities, operating conditions, aeration rate and mode, concentration of biomass and growth phase of microorganisms. Bioaerosols contain pathogenic bacteria including those resistant to antibiotics, fungi that are potential pathogens of mycetogenic diseases, as well as viruses that can survive for a long period of time in wastewater and are spread by airborne transmission. The applied methods of bioaerosol analysis provide data on the presence, size and viability of aerosol microorganisms; however, until now no standard methodology for sampling bioaerosols has been available. Thermal treatment and ultraviolet irradiation, the use of air filters and ventilation have become widespread among the means of preventing the formation and spread of bioaerosols. Various research in this area has focused on the use of granular activated carbon, floating plastic balls for water surface isolation, reactor surface vacuum treatment, wastewater sludge composting using membrane coating, the use of biofilters, and installation of wind barriers along the boundaries of wastewater treatment facilities and vertical gardening systems.

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