Tag:organic substances

№12|2019

ABROAD

DOI 10.35776/MNP.2019.12.08
UDC 628.16:62-278

Kofman V. Ya.

Gravity membrane filtration in water and wastewater treatment schemes (a review)

Summary

Gravity membrane filtration technology involves the use of flat polymer ultrafiltration and microfiltration membranes with pore sizes from several nanometers to several hundred nanometers submerged in water at 40-100 cm, i.e. operating under a hydrostatic head of 40–100 mbar as a driving force of the membrane filtration in deadlock mode. The bacterial community of the source water induces the formation of a biofilm layer on the membrane surface. At the same time, the presence of eukaryotes in the biofilm layer that are characterized by predatory behavior produces a kind of “biological purification” effect that provides for decreasing the filtration resistance of the biofilm due to the formation of voids and development of its heterogeneity. As a result of the dynamic development of such a system, its sustainability and relative continuity of the permeate flow at the level of 2–10 l/(m2·h) are achieved. Sustainable water flow in the gravity membrane filtration mode is maintained for many months without cleaning the membrane. The system ensures the removal of organic substances and pathogenic microorganisms from water. Different-scale testing of the gravity membrane filtration system has been carried out: for decentralized river water treatment, for stormwater and gray wastewater treatment in local treatment systems to produce water suitable for non-potable consumption, in wastewater treatment for safe discharge, and for seawater pretreatment before desalination. Currently, examples of the practical application of this filtration system are known.

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№4|2013

WASTEWATER SLUDGE HANDLING

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UDC 628.336.3

Kofman V. Ya.

Wastewater sludge handling in Europe(review of foreign publications)

Summary

A review of foreign literature on wastewater sludge treatment and utilization is presented. Regulatory requirements to wastewater treatment facilities operation in EC countries are given. Total characteristic of wastewater sludge is given together with sludge treatment methods (chemical stabilization, anaerobic and aerobic digestion, dewatering, thermal drying etc.), ways of utilization (storage, incineration, agricultural use, pyrolysis, gasification, wet oxidation etc.)

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№4|2012

«TECHNOVOD–2012»

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UDC 628.16.065

Alekseeva L. P., Kourova L. V.

The specific features of using organic cationic flocculants in surface water treatment

Summary

The specific features of using high-molecular cationic flocculants for the treatment of water from surface sources characterized by low color, medium turbidity and low organics are considered. On basis of theoretical provisions and experimental results the expediency of using these flocculants as basic chemicals and in combination with mineral flocculants are shown; the conditions of using them at the water treatment plants are determined.

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№1|2016

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.3

Alekseev S. E., Alekseeva L. P., Kourova L. V.

Evaluation of the efficiency of different chemicals in removing iron and organics from underground water

Summary

The composition and quality of underground waters in different regions of Russia substantially differ. Most underground waters contain elevated iron concentrations. Iron from underground water that contains oxygen and high concentrations of organic substances (humic and fulvic acids) that cause the water color is most difficult to remove. Besides, in oil producing regions underground waters occur that contain pollutants of anthropogenic origin: oil products, phenols, amines etc. In the process of such water purification integrated methods shall be used to provide for eliminating organic and non-organic pollution. The results of the studies of removing iron complex organic compounds from underground water in the Nefteyugansk region by different chemical methods: oxidation, alkalization and coagulation are considered. The impact of the conditions of using chemicals on the underground water purification efficiency was determined. It was shown that in removing complex iron compounds from water strong oxidizing agents and alkalizing chemicals could be used. To eliminate humic substances and organic compounds of anthropogenic origin coagulating chemicals must be used.

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№8|2014

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 504.064.47:628.31.4

Chistiakov N. E., Strelkov A. K., Lobanov V. I., Zanina Zh. V.

Processing leachate from municipal solid waste landfills for further utilization

Summary

The operation of municipal solid waste landfills produces a negative impact on the environment. The landfill leachate contains high concentrations of mineral and organic substances and, according to many researchers, is highly toxic. The qualitative characteristics of leachate depend on the age of the landfill, climate conditions and season of the year, amount of atmospheric precipitation, fallout pattern and other factors. Undoubtedly, the leachate quality is determined also by the chemical composition of wastes disposed to the landfill. Leachate handling is an urgent problem. Most often leachate treatment to the effluent quality meeting the maximum permissible concentrations for fishery waters is suggested. All the technologies and methods of this direction are fairly complicated and expensive. As a result additional wastes reluctant to utilization are generated. The possibility of using leachate for the landfill irrigation is suggested for consideration. This is the best practice since the effluent is retuned back to the landfill solid which is a natural biological reactor. Pretreatment, leachate saturation with oxygen and its further use for landfill irrigation will provide for reducing the time needed for complete destruction of organic compounds to the formation of humic acids, humate and organic soil; and also reducing significantly the negative impact of landfills on the environment including aquifers. In this case most of leachate evaporates and goes to the atmosphere eliminating any serious impact on it.

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№1|2024

WATER QUALITY CONTROL

UDC 543.31
DOI 10.35776/VST.2024.01.03

Dzhabbarly B. R.

Development of a method for the online estimation of the permanganate index of water entering water treatment facilities

Summary

The paper dwells upon the development of a method for the online estimation of the quality of water supplied to water treatment facilities. A composite index is proposed co-charactering both the input parameter of the indirect estimation of water quality and the permanganate index. It is shown that the proposed composite index has a minimum from the Raman scattering signal. The magnitude of Raman scattering is calculated upon the composite index reaches a minimum. It is shown that the permanganate index can be represented as a sum of two components, where the first component is determined by fluorescent radiation, and the second one by the previously calculated optimal value of the Raman radiation. An extrapolation method for determining DOM or CDOM with a known value of one of these indices is proposed based on the linear relationship constructed between them.

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№1|2013

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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UDC 628.35:661.5

Lominoga O. A., Agapov D. V., Bol'shakov N. Yu.

The technology of biological wastewater treatment with nitrification-denitrification at the Zelenogorsk wastewater treatment facilities

Summary

The results of introducing the technology of biological wastewater treatment with the use of nitrification-denitrification processes in the «aeration tank-secondary settling tank» system at the Zelenogorsk wastewater treatment facilities are presented. It is shown that the use of nitrification-denitrification enhance significantly the efficiency of nitrogen removal. The findings allow recommending the suggested technical solution for the introduction at other municipal wastewater treatment facilities.

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