12 2021

Number 12 / 2021

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Index of the Articles (pdf), Published in the Water Supply and Sanitary Technique Magazine in 2021г.

 



 

№12|2021

DISCUSSING REGULATORY DOCUMENTS

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.12.01
UDC 006.3:628.3:504.064

Rublevskaya O. N., Lysova T. I., Alekseeva I. V., Tsvetkova Ekaterina

Problems of water and wastewater utilities with technological regulation and introduction of industrial environmental control

Summary

The requirements of the environmental legislation in the process of transition to technological regulation based on the process parameters of the best available technologies, the introduction of the industrial environmental control including systems for automatic control of pollution discharges and emissions, are given. An analysis of the regulations of the environmental legislation is presented, as well as a number of problems arising in the implementation of the requirements of these regulations in the introduction of the best available technologies and industrial environmental control at the wastewater facilities of water and wastewater utilities are described. Problems are highlighted in relation to the following factors: impossibility or redundancy of conducting an inventory of discharges for a number of pollutants; inadequacy of the 7-year deadline for the implementation of the programs for improving the environmental efficiency and plans of action for environmental protection in presence of several objects of the I and II categories of the negative environmental impact; redundancy of the requirements for establishing technological regulations for discharges at the level «from the achieved»; contradictions in the regulations that complicate the introduction of automatic control systems. The paper describes the experience of the construction and upgrade of the public wastewater disposal facilities operated by SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg»; the practice of industrial environmental control, as well as the results of the interaction between the sectoral community of the water supply and wastewater disposal utilities; the conclusions drawn during updating ITS 22.1-2016 «General principles of industrial environmental control and its metrological support» in 2021. The ways of addressing the problems are proposed.

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№12|2021

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.12.02
UDC 628.52:537.523

Vasiliak L. M., Koudryavtsev N. N., SMIRNOV A. D.

Efficiency of gas discharge methods for odor control in municipal wastewater transportation and treatment systems

Summary

In the process of wastewater transportation and treatment malodorous substances are released into the air; among them hydrogen sulfide being one of the most difficult to remove. Various methods are used to remove malodorous substances from the air, including gas-discharge (plasma, ionization) methods that have proven remarkably effective in other industries. Vent emissions generated during wastewater treatment are specified by high humidity, high concentration of hydrogen sulfide, potential explosion hazard. These properties limit the possible use of gas discharge methods for the purification of this type of vent emissions. The specificity of applying gas discharge methods for air purification at the wastewater treatment facilities and wastewater pumping stations is described. The arising technical difficulties are presented.

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№12|2021

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.12.03
UDC 628.14(477.75)

Stepakin Aleksei, Pereguda Aleksei, Zaytseva S. G., Gorbachev Denis, Sopyryaev M. N.

Integrated approach to reducing drinking water losses in the distribution networks in the city of Sebastopol

Summary

The natural scarcity of water resources coupled with a high degree of deterioration of water supply systems result in a tense situation with the drinking water supply in Crimea. Over the past few years, a number of programs of upgrading the peninsula’s water industry have been developed and are being implemented in order to solve the problem at the regional and federal levels. One of the key objectives of these programs is to reduce water losses that currently reach 40–60%. A set of measures aimed at reducing water losses in Sebastopol is described. The set of measures developed in accordance with the international experience and Russian recommendations takes into account the current condition of the Crimean water supply system. The activities include designing an advanced network management complex, zoning of the water supply network, pressure regulation, monitoring and elimination of leaks. Based on the results of the analysis of the performance indicators, it was determined that the priority measure for Sebastopol was the introduction of an advanced acoustic monitoring system in the water distribution networks that would provide for detecting effectively latent leaks and saving the city thousands of cubic meters of scarce drinking water. The results of a pilot project on the inspection of 5 km of the water supply networks using the acoustic monitoring system are described.

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№12|2021

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.12.04
UDC 628.166:541.135

Pchel'nikov I. V., Nguen Tkhi Tuan Z’ep, FESENKO L. N.

Study of the current waveform effect on the formation of cathode deposits during direct electrolysis
Part 2. Electrolysis of sea water

Summary

Sodium chloride is a raw material for the production of sodium hypochlorite; however, the cost of its purchase and delivery is up to 25–30% of the total cost of the disinfectant produced. An alternative raw material for the production of sodium hypochlorite can be chlorides present in natural mineral water, e. g., underground, sea and oceanic water. Mineral water will be the raw material for obtaining sodium hypochlorite solution of a sufficiently high concentration that can then be added to the treated water. The experience of operating CHLOREFS units manufactured by EKOFES SPE LLC showed that the main problem related to the electrolyzer operation reliability is associated with the formation of deposits of hardness salts – calcium carbonate on the surface of the cathodic electrode, and magnesium hydroxide on the surface of the electrolyzer cathodes. This results in a negative electrolysis regime, an increase in voltage, overheating and warping of the electrode system, destruction of the oxide coating of the anodes, etc. The results of studies of direct electrolysis by direct and reverse current of salt water of the South Vietnam Sea are presented. During the tests the effect of reverse current in comparison with direct current on the reduction of the formation of insoluble substances on the cathodes of the electrolyzer was estimated, and besides, the electrolysis process parameters were determined. The current chlorine yield for seawater was above 100% in the reverse mode with a current density of 100 A/m2.

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№12|2021

WATER AND WASTEWATER COMPANIES IN RUSSIA

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.12.05
UDC 628.1/.2

Gvozdev V. A., Leonov L. V., Rublevskaya O. N.

Eternal engine of progress

Summary

The quality of water supply and wastewater disposal services over the first twenty years of the 21st century has brought SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg» to a new level of development owing to the introduction of innovative technologies in water supply and wastewater disposal systems. The use of technologies, such as two-stage disinfection of drinking water, odor control of landfills, geotubing, the use of Flottweg centrifuges, powdered one-component flocculant, powdered activated carbon, the introduction of a precipitation measurement system, were carried out with the active participation of Fedor Ivanovich Lobanov, Assistant to the General Director of SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg» on dealing with industries, who turned 80 in November 2021.

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№12|2021

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.12.06
UDC 628.33

Kalachev D. A., Wolfgang Branner

Mechanical treatment of wastewater

Summary

The selection of equipment for mechanical wastewater treatment is an important stage in the reconstruction or new construction of the treatment facilities that determines their efficiency and reliability in terms of the technology and operation. The examples of the currently widespread technical solutions for designing filtering cloth of the screens for mechanical wastewater treatment are given. The effectiveness of these solutions is compared. On the basis of studying wastewater treatment facilities in Germany, a comparison of the debris retention efficiency depending on the applied filtration grade, i. e., two-dimensional (perforation) and one-dimensional (bar spacing) is presented.

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№12|2021

PIPELINE SYSTEMS

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.12.07
UDC 628.24

Zakharov Iu. S.

Specific features of the static calculation of underground pipelines of gravity wastewater disposal systems

Summary

An essential pre-requisite for environmentally safe and reliable operation of underground pipelines of gravity wastewater disposal systems is specifying the requirements for the structural behavior of building construction elements (pipes, fittings) that are determined on the basis of a static calculation of the pipeline. In the process of the static analysis, direct and indirect loadings acting on the pipeline are determined and analyzed, and their impact on the structure is estimated. Existing approaches to performing a static analysis are considered. Based on the results of the studies carried out by Russian and foreign authors, it has been argued that the choice of the pipe parameters used in the construction of underground pipelines depends not only on the properties of structural materials, but primarily on the soil properties, conditions of laying and installation, as well as on the existing loadings and degree of pipeline deformation.

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№12|2021

HISTORY OF WATER SUPPLY

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.12.08
UDC 628.1:94

Gasimov Anar

What hides the German reference book of the Tsarist-era?

Summary

There are very few pre-revolutionary editions of Hütte, a German reference book for engineers, architects, mechanical engineers and students, with a professional translation into Russian. One of the rarities is in the archives of Profactor Armaturen GmbH as its intellectual property. Hütte three-volume reference book, published in the Russian Empire in 1916-1917, allows analysts and engineers of the enterprise to find and get acquainted with interesting scientific and technical achievements of the early twentieth century. Selected information from the reference book is adapted for the preparation and publication of a series of review historical materials with original illustrations. The following overview from this series is addressed to specialists who are interested in the history and development of the heating system, gas, steam and water fittings.

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