11 2021

Number 11 / 2021

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№11|2021

NII VODGEO – DAR/VODGEO

UDC 628.1/.3:556.3

Filianskii Ignat, TIMOFEEVA E. A.

Heritage and modernity

Summary

The history of the establishment and development of NII VODGEO JSC – one of the biggest state water research centers in the country in the changing political and economic conditions from the moment the institute was founded until the 2020s – is briefly outlined. The stages of the emergence and development of DAR/VODGEO JSC – an integrated design and survey, research and production enterprise for water supply, wastewater disposal, hydraulic engineering, engineering hydrogeoecology and environmental protection, that was founded in the early 1990s on the basis of NII VODGEO for the practical application of the Institute scientific studies. The up-to-date information on the activities of NII VODGEO and DAR/VODGEO Group is provided.

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№11|2021

BEST AVAILABLE TECHNIQUES

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.11.01
UDC 502/504

KURANOV N. P., TIMOFEEVA E. A.

Criterial approach to substantiation of the best available techniques for engineering protection against hazardous techno-natural processes

Summary

Prediction of measures and construction of facilities for engineering protection from hazardous processes has a number of specific features that should be borne in mind while developing a method for substantiating the best available techniques. The mathematical tools that provide for substantiating the choice of a technology for engineering protection from hazardous techno-natural processes, that can be assigned to the best available techniques, are under development. One of the approaches is presented that allows, on the basis of quantitative assessments, to substantiate the choice of an option of engineering protection against hazardous techno-natural processes. This approach is based on the expert-analytical method for assessing the risk from hazardous natural-technogenic processes that has been widely used in recent years. Mathematical tools have been proposed that provide for reasonably approaching the choice of the best available technique for engineering protection against hazardous techno-natural processes, taking into account the capabilities of the owner, his position in the current situation and development prospects.

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№11|2021

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.11.02
UDC 556.3:330.131.7

KURANOV N. P., TIMOFEEVA E. A.

Assessment of safety and risk of flooding of urban industrial territories: expert-analytical method

Summary

The main provisions of the expert-analytical method for assessing the risk of hazardous processes are stated; the method formed the basis for the development of a number of methodological recommendations and state standards. On the basis of this method, a technique is proposed for assessing the safety and risk of one of the dangerous natural-technogenic processes – flooding of urban industrial territories. The main factors of the harmful impact of this process on the structures located in such territories are indicated. It is shown how risks and damages from flooding of urban industrial territories can be estimated on the basis of the general methodological approach to assessing risks from hazardous techno-natural processes. As a result, criteria for safety and risk of flooding were obtained and a mechanism for assessing the risk of flooding was developed. The features of the assessment of the risk from flooding of urban industrial territories at the federal, regional and local levels are revealed.

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№11|2021

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.11.03
UDC 626.88

Shul’gin Vladimir, Nabokov Sergei

Best practice of using air-bubble curtains as part of complex fish protection structures

Summary

The results of studying the operation of complex fish protection structures with the use of air-bubble curtains are presented. A description of the operating mechanism of complex fish protection structures and the principle of operation of the air-bubble curtain is given. On the basis of a hydraulic calculation, a method for designing and using an air-bubble curtain as part of complex fish protection structures has been developed. The results of estimating the functional efficiency of the built complex fish protection structures are presented. The complex fish protection structures that include debris deflectors and air-bubble curtains and operate in an air-lift mode, effectively protect fish fry. Provided the operating parameters of the equipment and the selected alignment of the structures with account of the hydraulic and technical features of the water intake have been correctly chosen, their efficiency is guaranteed to exceed the standard values.

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№11|2021

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.11.04
UDC 628.472.37:550.461:550.424

KUZMIN V. V., Boldyrev Kirill, Safonov Aleksei

Hydrogeochemical assessment of the sorption properties of heavy metals in the areas of the impact of solid waste landfills on groundwater

Summary

The fundamentals of the method for predicting the spread of heavy metals in the areas of groundwater pollution by leachate from solid municipal waste landfills are stated. The analysis of the leachate quality of municipal solid waste landfills and the applicability of statistical and empirical estimates of the sorption coefficient of heavy metals is carried out. The limited applicability of statistical estimates for analyzing the distribution of highly mineralized leachate is shown. Based on the method of geochemical simulation, a model has been developed for determining the exchange coefficients between the dissolved and solid phases, i. e. sorption coefficients. The results of determining the sorption coefficient for a wide range of cations are presented with regard to the conditions of natural water displacement by the leachate from solid waste landfills. The developed method can be used to estimate the impact of municipal solid waste landfills on groundwater quality, to predict the spread of heavy metals in the area of potential waste impact, to carry out works within the framework of EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) and LEPM (List of Environmental Protection Measures), to develop systems for engineering protection of groundwater from pollution. The proposed model can serve as a basis for its further improvement with account of the processes of formation of stable organic metal complexes in leachate and complexation on the hard rocks.

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№11|2021

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.11.05
UDC 550.461:550.424:543.383.2

KUZMIN V. V., Boldyrev Kirill

Hydrochemical modeling of migration of dissolved oil products in groundwater

Summary

A method for predicting the spread of BTEX group oil products (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes) in groundwater based on hydrochemical modeling with account of changes in the redox, acidity or alkalinity of the solution during the biodegradation of oil products is stated. A geochemical model of the biological decomposition of oil products of BTEX group based on modified Mono kinetics with account of the reactions between acceptors, biodegradation products and inorganic components of the solution is presented. Examples of geochemical modeling are given that demonstrate the importance of taking into account the processes associated with the changes in the hydrogeochemical environment in groundwater during the decomposition of hydrocarbons. The developed model can be used to carry out geochemical predictions of the spread of light-end oil products in groundwater, to carry out works within the framework of estimating the environmental impact, and to develop systems for engineering protection of groundwater from oil pollution.

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№11|2021

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.11.06
UDC 628.168:628.166-926.214

Seliukov Aleksandr, Semenov Mikhail, Baikova Ida

In-process tests of river water conditioning for domestic and drinking water supply in the city of Kurgan

Summary

The experience of using ozonation of river water on a laboratory and pilot scale is considered. The water of the Tobol River is hard and mineralized with an average color value of 24 degrees, a manganese concentration in the winter period of more than 0.8 mg/dm3. After determining the operational doses of the chemicals (polyaluminum chloride coagulant, Praestol 650TR flocculant), test ozonation was carried out followed by the chemical treatment in a laboratory flocculator. To achieve the standard for manganese concentration in river water of 0.1 mg/dm3, high doses of ozone were required – from 35 mg/dm3. Alkalinization of the initial water to pH 9 provided for reducing the ozone dose to 23 mg/dm3. A decrease in color to 15 degrees occurred at ozone doses of 6–7 mg/dm3. River water purification at a pilot plant with a capacity of 50 l/h was carried out according to the complete process flow scheme (ozonation, treatment with coagulant and flocculant, sedimentation, filtration in a sand filter, filtration in a carbon filter, desalination-softening by reverse osmosis). The coagulant dose was 5 mg/dm3, and that of the flocculant – 0.3 mg/dm3. In the steady run of the pilot plant at an ozone dose of 25 mg/dm3, the following quality indicators of the sand filter filtrate were achieved: color 5–7 degrees; manganese 0.05–0.15 mg/dm3; total iron 0.02–0.03 mg/dm3; aluminum 0.05–0.08 mg/dm3; permanganate index 3–4 mg/dm3. Based on the estimate indicators of the Tobol River water composition related to the manganese concentration in water of 0.8 mg/dm3, the theoretic dose of ozone is ≈ 8 mg/dm3, the design dose of ozone can be assumed as 10 mg/dm3 (g/m3).

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№11|2021

WATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.11.07
UDC 628.33:622.5

Kasperovich Viktoriia

Choosing the chemicals and advanced filter media for enhancing the process of mine water purification

Summary

Currently, the construction of facilities for the purification of mine waters is one of the important measures aimed at preserving surface watercourses and water reservoirs. The amount of mine water discharged into surface water bodies can be reduced by reusing it for complex dedusting in mines, process water supply and other most water-intensive technological processes. One of the effective ways of removing suspended solids and heavy metals from mine water is chemical treatment with high-molecular flocculants that provide for reducing the consumption of inorganic coagulants and enhancing the process of suspended solids and heavy metals precipitation. Pretreatment of mine water upstream contact clarifiers can significantly increase the capacity of existing treatment facilities, stabilize their operation in case of fluctuations in the quality composition and temperature of mine water, and reduce the load on the subsequent stages of filtration in rapid filters. The results of experimental laboratory studies of trial coagulation and flocculation with subsequent filtration in rapid filters using Orefilter B catalytic filtering media, AS sorbent and Extrasorb sorption media, as well as removing (stripping) ammonia from mine water are presented.

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Баннер конференции для ВСТ 3

Wasma23 200x100 stand

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Российская ассоциация водоснабжения и водоотведения

souz ingenerov 02