02 2021

Number 2 / 2021

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№2|2021

ЮБИЛЕЙ НГАСУ

 

Новосибирский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет: 90 лет созидания

Аннотация

В 2020 г. старейшему вузу Новосибирска – Новосибирскому государственному архитектурно-строительному университету (Сибстрин) исполнилось 90 лет.


 

№2|2021

WATER QUALITY CONTROL

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.02.01
UDC 628.1.033:658.562

NEFEDOVA E. D., Galaktionova Ol’ga

Multilevel water quality control system in the public water supply system of Saint-Petersburg

Summary

The issues related to the arrangement of the drinking water quality control, including in-process monitoring, in accordance with the current sanitary and sectorial regulations are touched upon. The experience of SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg» in developing production control programs, selecting control points in the distribution network with account of the risk assessment in case of water quality deterioration at the consumer’s tap, is presented. Initiatives for including into the statutory regulations on the arrangement of production control, the mandatory use of automated water quality control systems for the main indicator values (temperature, turbidity, color, pH, total organic carbon, residual chlorine) are outlined. The amendments will provide for improving the efficiency of the water supply system management, responding promptly to the changes in water composition, and continuously monitoring the state of the system sustainability with the transition to digital technologies («smart water utility»).

Key words

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№2|2021

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.02.02
UDC 628.164

Larionov S. Iu., Panteleev A. A., Riabchikov B. E., Kasatochkin A. S.

Chemical water softening systems with a contact media blanket
(a review)

Summary

Chemical softening of drinking water is used quite rarely due to the difficulty of preparing chemicals, maintaining the required and constant water temperature, complicated design and maintenance of the installations under the conditions of a water intake. A particular problem is waste utilization. In the middle of the last century, so-called vortex reactors with contact media began to be used that had a significantly higher capacity and did not require water heating. In the reactors solid granules of carbonate are generated, which is equivalent to the modern concept of zero liquid discharge, i. e., closed cycle technology. In Russia, they were designed at VNII VODGEO; however, did not gain widespread use. The next step was the development of reactors with fluidized bed of contact media. These apparatuses are widely used in Europe and the USA. At present, Mediana-Filter SPC, JSC is busy with designing and studying such reactors. They have a high specific capacity – 50–100 m3/(m2·h) – and are much easier to operate and maintain than clarifiers. The capacity of the plants reaches thousands of cubic meters per hour. The review considers the stages of development, ways of improving the reactors, their advantages and disadvantages.
и существенно проще в обслуживании, чем осветлители. Производительность установок достигает тысяч кубометров в час. В обзоре рассмотрены стадии развития, пути усовершенствования реакторов, их преимущества и недостатки.

Key words

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№2|2021

WATER SOURCES QUALITY MONITORING

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.02.03
UDC 574.632/.633

Chesnokova S. M., Savel'ev O. V.

Assessment of the oxygen regime, nitrification processes, trophicity and toxicity levels of minor stream water

Summary

The assessment of the level of pollution and the level of trophicity with nutrients depending on their concentration in a minor stream – the Sodyshka River was carried out. It is shown that in terms of the concentration of ammonium nitrogen and mineral forms of nitrogen, the watercourse throughout its entire length falls in the category «eutrophic»; whereas, in terms of the level of pollution with mineral phosphorus, only some the sections of the river downstream the Yur’evetskaia poultry farm and the mouth can be attributed to the eutrophic category. Permanganate oxidizability and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were used to define the degree of pollution of the watercourse with organic substances of various origin. It is shown that the river is classified as «very dirty» in terms of the total oxidizability (COD). It was found that in 62.5% of water sampling points the oxygen saturation rate (OSR) was below 60% indicating the low quality of water in the stream and low rate of oxidation of organic and inorganic substances in the hydroecosystem. The results of the correlation analysis showed that resistant to oxidation (non-oxidative by microbiota) allochthonous substances have the greatest effect on the degree of water saturation with oxygen (correlation coefficient 0.98). Based on the results of field studies of the concentration of various forms of mineral nitrogen, the intensity of nitrification processes in the river water was calculated. To identify the toxicity of water to zooplankton, zoobenthos, and fish, the aggregation index was used that defined the exceedance of the maximum permissible concentration of the main forms of nitrogen for fishery waters. Judging by the value of the aggregation index, the river water turned out to be toxic.

Key words

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№2|2021

SURFACE RUNOFF TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.02.04
UDC 628.212.2/.316

Leonov L. V., Grekov M. A., Chechevichkin A. V., Iakunin L. A., Elagin Sergei, Kozinets Galina

Test operation of a FOPS®-S filter separator in the process
of surface runoff purification from the car parking area

Summary

Surface runoff from large metropolitan areas is heavily polluted. Car parking areas are of overriding concern in pollution since the surface runoff generated on them contains high concentrations of oil products and suspended solids. The aim of the project was multi-season test operation of a FOPS®-S filter-separator for the purification of the surface runoff disposed into the sewer system from the parking area. In the course of observations, it was found that over 21 months of testing, the FOPS®-S filter provided for removing
82–99% suspended solids and 55–76% of oil products from heavily contaminated surface runoff (at their maximum concentration in the surface runoff 3000 and 10.5 mg/dm3, respectively). No decrease in the treatment efficiency was observed for 21 months, including the periods of negative temperatures (two seasons). During the tests the hydraulic discharge of the trapped pollutants from the FOPS®-S filter was carried out twice: suspended solids (~ 130 kg) and oil products (~ 2.1 dm3).
10,5 мг/дм3 соответственно). Снижения эффективности очистки в течение 21 месяца не наблюдалось, в том числе в периоды отрицательных температур (два сезона). За время испытаний из фильтра ФОПС®-С дважды производилась гидровыгрузка задержанных загрязнений: взвешенных веществ (~ 130 кг) и нефтепродуктов (~ 2,1 дм3).

Key words

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№2|2021

SEWERAGE NETWORKS

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.02.05
УДК 628.24

Gromov G. N., Ten A. E., Dzhumagulova N. T., Brianskaia Iuliia

Hydraulic characteristics and calculation of the innovative systems of surface runoff disposal

Summary

In the context of the intensive development of new domestic and foreign technologies, materials and equipment used to protect the environment from anthropogenic pollution, the development of advanced systems for surface runoff removal and treatment is of special actuality. These systems provide for using the latest achievements of the sectoral science and optimizing the algorithm for performing operations and practical methods for the hydraulic calculations. An example of the innovative surface runoff disposal system is ASO Qmax, that refers to an open system of channels for the collection and disposal of surface runoff formed during precipitation. However, the widespread use of these facilities in Russia is hampered by the lack of a method for the hydraulic calculations, including tables for the selection of cross-sections (diameters) of channels that meet the requirements of the Russian guidelines and regulations for the design of surface runoff disposal systems. In this regard, the subject of this paper is the estimation of the hydraulic characteristics of pipelines, channels of ASO Qmax drainage system. The results of theoretical and experimental studies of the hydraulic characteristics of ASO Qmax system with account of the adaptation for the Russian conditions and regulatory requirements, as well as the justification of the recommended parameters for their use are presented.

Key words

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№2|2021

VENTILATION SYSTEMS

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.02.06
UDC 697.92

Agafonova V. V., Skibin Aleksandr, Volkov Vasilii

Modeling air exchange in office premises using a microperforated fabric air duct

Summary

The issues of improving the quality of the internal environment of an office building using an advanced air dispersion device – a fabric air duct with micro-orifices are considered. The advantage of this device is supplying the incoming air by jets with a low impulse allowing to locate the devices near the working space in offices eliminating the risk of drafts at the working places. The purpose of the work is a comparative numerical calculation of the efficiency of arranging the air exchange in an office building with two air supply schemes: through supply grilles and through a fabric air duct with microperforation. Modeling was carried out using the commercial STAR-CCM + software package. The system of Reynolds equations with closure using the k-ω SST turbulence model (Mentor) is used to describe the air movement. As part of the study, data on the nature of the change in temperature and air speed along the height of the working area of the office were obtained. It has been determined that while air is supplied through the supply grilles, the temperature (23.3–27.2 °C) and air speed (0.06–0.22 m/s) meet the permissible microclimate standards (GOST 30494-2011); while arranging the air exchange with the use of a microperforated air duct they correspond to the optimal parameters (temperature 23.1–25.4 °С, air speed 0.09–0.13 m/s) that are comfortable for the human body. Thus, the use of a microperforated air duct enhances the efficiency of heat surplus assimilation in comparison with traditional air distribution devices (ventilation grilles).

Key words

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№2|2021

FROM THE HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRY

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.02.07
UDC 628.1:72.03

Sedov A. M., Balova Ol’ga

The history of the Murom water tower

Summary

The history of the first urban district water supply system in the city of Murom in the Russian Empire is presented. The situation with drinking water supply in the late 19th – early 20th centuries is considered. Fresh information about engineer E. I. Yerzhemsky – the author of the project of the Ermakovskii water supply system is presented. The main architectural and compositional solutions and original elements of the decorative design of the facades of the water tower are described. The paper addresses historians, art experts, architects, employees of state authorities and local government, as well as readers interested in the historical and cultural heritage of Russia.

Key words

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