03 2021

Number 3 / 2021

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№3|2021

LAWS, STANDARDS, NORMATIVES

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.03.01
UDC 628.2

Primin Oleg

On the development of Technical Regulations on the safety of water distribution and sewer networks of public water supply and wastewater disposal systems (for discussion)

Summary

The issues of reliability of pipelines of water and sewer networks of Russian cities and settlements are considered. Considerations (by way of discussion) on the need for the development and adoption of Technical Regulations on the safety of water and sewer networks of public water supply and wastewater disposal systems are presented. The Technical Regulations will establish the requirements to water and sewer networks that will be mandatory for use and compliance on the territory of the Russian Federation. It is noted that the water industry in Russia is currently lacking a uniform system developed on the basis of the practice of applying mandatory requirements to pipe products used in water and sewer networks and their mandatory certification. The scope of application of such Technical Regulations is proposed, i. e. networks of public systems of cold water supply and wastewater disposal (sewerage) at all stages of their life cycle, as well as materials and articles, pipes, fittings, manholes and related processes of design, construction, operation, maintenance, current repairs and overhaul works, conservation and abandonment of water supply and sewer networks.

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№3|2021

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.03.02
UDC 628.16:614.35

Remizova Iuliia, Golovanova Anna, Rudakova Dar’ia, Mitilineos Aleksandr

Experimental estimation of the efficiency of removing residual amounts of antibiotics and steroid hormones from water with home water purification systems

Summary

To remove residual amounts of pharmaceutical compounds present in drinking water, a variety of purification methods based on various physicochemical principles can be used at all stages of water treatment. The paper presents the results of an experimental study of the efficiency of removing residual concentrations of pharmaceuticals – laevomycetin antibiotic (chloramphenicol) and estrone steroid hormone – from a model solution prepared on the basis of tap water with the addition of drugs, using a home fixed water purification system. It is shown that the home water purification system provides for the significant reduction of residual concentrations of chloramphenicol and estrone throughout the service life declared by the manufacturer. In the household water purification sector, adsorption-type units are still the most in-demand type of water purification systems that provide for the high efficiency in removing various pollutants with minimal capital costs.

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№3|2021

WATER INTAKES

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.03.03
UDC 556.3.01:556.382

Opryshko B. A., Shvetsov V. A., Belavina O. A.

Improving the method for monitoring the piezometric level
of underground water in production wells of the Kamchatka Territory

Summary

The experience in monitoring the hydrodynamic regime of underground pressure water in the process of exploitation is presented. To measure and correct the results of measurements of the piezometric level of underground water in blowing wells, self-contained automated measuring devices were used. The experimental studies were carried out at observation well No. 1 of the Mil’kovskoe deposit of underground drinking water (Amsharikski site). The research results showed that the maximum underground water level corresponded to the period of snow cover melting (May – June). The minimum underground water level was observed in April. It is noted that the annual schedule of the water level changes in well No. 1 does not fully comply with any of the standard schedules suggesting the need to establish automated control of the hydrodynamic regime of this underground water deposit in order to protect it from depletion and pollution.

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№3|2021

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.03.04
UDC 628.52

Kuz’min V. A., Klokov Aleksandr, Dzhikirba Beslan

The experience of operating the systems for removing malodorous substances at the wastewater disposal facilities

Summary

To prevent the unpleasant odors spreading from the wastewater disposal system SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg» is carrying out continuous studies and tests, and introduces various technologies, equipment and materials to reduce the concentration of malodorous substances entering the atmosphere through the ventilation system. Herewith, the main technologies used are as follows: adsorption, biofiltration, electrodischarge (plasma-catalytic) methods and the combined use of electrodischarge and sorption methods. As part of the work carried out over the past 10 years, an analysis of the operational and economic aspects was executed, as well as the effectiveness of the implemented technologies for the removal of malodorous substances at the facilities operated by the State Unitary Enterprise «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg» was studied. To select the most effective technologies and equipment, a scoring analysis method was developed.

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№3|2021

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.03.05
UDC 628.355:62-278

Lominoga O. A., Kuz’min V. A., Koloskova Evgeniia

Introduction of membrane technologies at the wastewater treatment facilities of Molodezhnoe settlement

Summary

The experience of introducing membrane wastewater treatment technology at the wastewater treatment facilities in Molodezhnoe settlement (St. Petersburg) is presented. The treatment facilities include: a main pumping station, a combined mechanical wastewater treatment plant, a wastewater regulator, a bioreactor (aeration tank operating using nitri-denitrification technology) for enhanced nitrogen removal, a membrane bioreactor, an ultraviolet effluent disinfection unit, a screw press for excess activated sludge dewatering, aluminum sulfate dosing unit for the chemical removal of phosphorus compounds (phosphates). The effluent after disinfection is discharged through a deep-water outlet into the Gulf of Finland. Membrane filtration provides for the enhanced tertiary treatment to remove fine suspended solids and colloidal particles. To achieve a stable quality of the effluent during the operation of membrane modules, the following requirements shall be strictly met: the high efficiency of screenings removal; prevention of the ingress of foreign particles into the bioreactor after mechanical treatment; high concentration of sludge in the aeration tank and membrane unit; timely chemical washing of the membranes. During the trial operation of the treatment facilities in Molodezhnoe, the irregular hydraulic and pollution loading was noted. During the operation period the operating modes of the facilities were adjusted with account of the irregular characteristics of the incoming flow while achieving the design parameters of the process line of wastewater treatment.

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№3|2021

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.03.06
UDC 628.345

Alekseyev E. V.

The use of «coasorption» concept while describing the effect of coagulants on the wastewater aqua systems (for discussion)

Summary

The widespread use of chemical coagulation in purification of natural water and industrial wastewater is due, on the one hand, to the complex chemical composition and phase-disperse state of their aqua systems, and on the other hand, to the multifactorial effect of coagulants on them. The main mechanisms of interaction between coagulants and pollutants are considered through the example of industrial wastewater treatment containing organic substances (surfactants and synthetic dyes). The physicochemical term «coagulation» reflects only one of the mechanisms of the effect of coagulants on pollutants. The currently accepted process parameters «dose of coagulant» and «specific dose of coagulant» do not reflect the variety of interactions of pollutants with coagulant salts either, and are not linked to the result of coagulation. This makes it difficult to describe the collective effect of physicochemical processes while adding coagulants to the treated water and to quantify it. The solution to the problem is possible introducing the concept of «coasorption» that determines the multifactorial origin of the interaction of coagulants and pollutants in the processes of wastewater treatment by coagulation; and the process parameter «specific coasorption» that establishes a quantitative relationship between the concentrations of pollutants in raw wastewater and effluent with a dose of coagulant. The specific coasorption functions are graphically presented in the form of coasorption isotherms for two types of surfactants and synthetic dyes. Based on the results of the analysis of the features of the isotherms, it is shown that they reflect different mechanisms of interaction between coagulants and pollutants. The use of coasorption as a technological concept provides for identifying the mechanisms of interaction of pollutants with a coagulant and establishing the best conditions for the coagulation process. The functional description of the coasorption isotherms allows extrapolating the results of trial coagulation in a wide range of pollutant concentrations. The practical importance of specific coasorption isotherms provides for determining the dosages of chemicals during coagulation of water based on the initial concentration of pollutants and effluent standard.

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№3|2021

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.03.07
UDC 628.316.12:628.52

Gimaletdinov Rustem, Usmanov Marat, Valeev Salavat, Bodrov Viktor, Paskaru Konstantin, Vezhnovets Viktor

Sorbent based on modified hydrolysis lignin for the purification
of wastewater from oil refineries

Summary

The results of studies of using SynergySorb® PS-1000 sorbent based on modified hydrolysis lignin for the purification of wastewater from large oil refineries are presented. Owing to the developed system of micro- and mesopores, the sorbent effectively absorbs light fractions of hydrocarbons, thus reducing the total content of oil products in wastewater and the intensity of odor near open treatment facilities. The total dynamic exchange capacity of the sorbent for oil products was 0.605 g/g while filtering wastewater from one of the largest Russian oil refineries. The average treatment efficiency before the breakthrough of oil products was 94%, the intensity of effluent odor as a result of tests was reduced from 5 to 2 points. Spent SynergySorb® PS-1000 sorbent belongs to the 4th hazard class (low hazard) in terms of toxicity and ecotoxicity.

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№3|2021

ABROAD

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.03.08
UDC 628.31:578.834.1

Kofman V. Ya., Vishnevskii Mikhail

Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater (review)

Summary

The COVID-19 pandemic, declared by WHO as a health emergency, is caused by a novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. According to reports from the European Union, the United States and Australia, the potential survival of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus in feces and wastewater for a sufficiently long time creates a real threat of its entry with wastewater into treatment facilities or directly into surface water while raw wastewater is discharged. This indicates the potential for the transfer of SARS-CoV-2 by water. In this regard, the development of effective methods for the removal and inactivation of viruses at the treatment facilities is of special actuality. The presence of coronavirus infection in wastewater can pose a serious health hazard to people in contact with it. These include the personnel at the wastewater treatment facilities, as well as the general population, who may be directly exposed to raw or inadequately treated wastewater through defective water or sewer systems. In many countries wastewater epidemiology methods are used to obtain timely reliable information on the spread of coronavirus infection. Possible detection of RNA virus in wastewater even with a low prevalence rate of COVID-19 and the correlation between the concentration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater and official information indicate that monitoring wastewater can become a sensitive tool for monitoring the circulation of the virus in the
population.

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