07 2023

Number 7 / 2023

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№07|2023

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

UDC 502.51(282)
DOI 10.35776/VST.2023.07.01

Chesnokova S. M., Savel'ev O. V.

Estimation of the anthropogenic load on small rivers by the level of pollution of bottom sediments with organic matter, phosphates and iron

Summary

The results of studies on estimating the anthropogenic load on small rivers of the Vladimir region in terms of the level of pollution of bottom sediments with organic matter, phosphates and iron (III) compounds are presented. The Ilevna, Kamenka and Sodyshka rivers are characterized by different surface areas and population level of their watersheds, and by the identity of non-point sources of pollution. It has been established that water and bottom sediments of the studied watercourses are heavily polluted with organic matter, phosphates and iron (III) compounds; and, consequently they are eutrophicated. In terms of the pollution of hydroecosystems with organic matter and phosphates, the watercourses form a series: Sodyshka > Kamenka > Ilevna, and in terms of the concentration of iron (III): Kamenka > Sodyshka > Ilevna. Judging from the COD index that characterizes pollution with organic compounds, the water of the Ilevna river is dirty, and the Sodyshka and Kamenka rivers are very dirty. The ecosystems of the Sodyshka and Kamenka rivers are heavily polluted. In order to prevent hypereutrophication and degradation, cleaning their riverbeds to remove bottom sediments is proposed. A method is suggested for calculating the anthropogenic load of certain pollutants with account of their concentration in the bottom sediments and watershed area.

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№07|2023

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

UDC 628.35:665.666.6
DOI 10.35776/VST.2023.07.02

Agarev Anton, Kevbrina M. V., Gavrilov Dmitrii, Belov N. A., Zharkov A. V.

Process solutions to increase the efficiency of wastewater treatment with a low concentration of organic matter

Summary

Through the example of the Moscow wastewater treatment facilities, the ways of improving the efficiency of treatment of low-concentrated wastewater in terms of organic matter are considered: the acidification of raw sludge, addition of an external organic substrate, use of technologies independent of the concentration of organic substances. In the presence of refluxes containing nitrogen and phosphorus, the use of organic matter-independent technologies is promising to reduce the nitrogen and phosphorus load on the main biological treatment line. Process solutions that improve the efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus removal from low-concentrated wastewater in terms of organic matter at the Liuberetsky and Kurianovsky treatment facilities are as follows: acidification of raw sludge to increase the concentration of readily available organic matter; local treatment of refluxes from the sludge treatment facilities to reduce the nitrogen and phosphorus load on the biological treatment using the Anammox process and obtaining a mineral fertilizer – struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate). At the small-scale wastewater treatment facilities of New Moscow, the addition of yeast condensate as an additional organic matter provides for increasing the BOD5/Ntotal ratio from 3.2 to 4.3, which under these conditions is sufficient for the successful denitrification and biological dephosphorization processes. This made it possible to ensure the standard level of removing nitrogen of nitrates and phosphorus of phosphates and, as a result, reduce the consumption of the chemical (ferric chloride).

Key words

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№07|2023

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

UDC 628.35
DOI 10.35776/VST.2023.07.03

Kharkina O. V.

Principal risks in designing wastewater treatment facilities. Calculation of aeration tanks (part 1) (for the discussion)

Summary

A detailed calculation of the values of the aerobic age of activated sludge is presented to ensure the required quality of the effluent, both in terms of ammonium nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen, with examples. Similar indicators have been calculated, for the most part, by the Danilovich–Epov empirical method, and on the basis of the calculations it is shown why the Danilovich–Epov method gives underestimated values of the sludge aerobic age. It is shown that calculations of the aeration tank volumes in our country have always (since 1974) been based on the formulas of enzymatic kinetics and, hence, have been theoretical (mathematical) models. Most process engineers in our country have always calculated and still are calculating biological wastewater treatment facilities using the formulas of enzymatic kinetics; therewith, this approach is always the next step compared to empirical models.

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№07|2023

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

UDC 628.16.08:544.522:547.562.1
DOI 10.35776/VST.2023.07.04

Ahmed Sameh Abdelfattah Araby, Gogina Elena

Photodegradation of phenol by UVC-activated persulfate in the presence of Fe (III) as a catalyst

Summary

In the process of executed research, the photocatalytic degradation of phenol was studied using deep oxidation with the use of sulfate radicals (SR-AOPs-Sulfate Radical-based Advanced Oxidation Processes). In particular, the {UVC/PS/Fe(III)} combination was used and compared with direct photolysis, {UVC/PS} and {PS/Fe(III)}. The results showed that the {UVC/PS/Fe(III)} treatment had the highest initial reaction rate and removal efficiency. After 120 minutes of reaction, the {UVC/PS/Fe (III)} oxidation system provided for 74% phenol removal. The effect of pH, persulfate concentration, Fe (III) concentration, and initial phenol concentration on the removal efficiency in the {UFS/PS/Fe(III)} system was also investigated. The optimum phenol removal efficiency is achieved at pH 4, whereas, increasing alkalinity reduces the removal efficiency. In addition, an increase in the concentration of persulfate to 10 mmol improved the removal efficiency; however, an excessive dose of persulfate had a negative effect on the phenol degradation. Similarly, the effective degradation of phenol is achieved by increasing the concentration of ferric ions to 5 mmol at a lower initial concentration of phenol. The data obtained indicate that the presence of ferric ions promotes the formation of radicals in situ in the {UVC/PS/Fe(III)} system, which leads to a significant improvement in the photocatalytic degradation of phenol. Overall, the study highlights the potential of the {UVC/PS/Fe(III)} system for phenol-contaminated wastewater treatment prior to discharge to water bodies.

Key words

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№07|2023

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

UDC 628.316.12:621.039.7
DOI 10.35776/VST.2023.07.05

Krepp Anton, Cheremushkin Gennadii, Malitskii Vladimir, Koriagina Alla, Kharina Margarits, Kadykova Ol’ga

Special treatment of liquid radionuclide waste from the oncology department of the hospital in the Skolkovo Innovation Center

Summary

RadioIzotopnye Pribory, LLC in cooperation with Institut Kanalset’proekt, LLC developed design and engineering documentation for the special treatment of a domestic sewer with liquid radionuclide waste coming from the oncology department of the hospital. The medical department is located on the territory of the Skolkovo Innovation Center (Moscow). The developed special sewer system provides for reducing the volume of wastewater from an «active» hospital ward, safe diverting it to settling tanks for decontamination owing to the natural decay of radioactive isotopes, safe dumping it into the household sewer network posing no risk to the people, environment and sewer facilities.

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№07|2023

ОЧИСТКА ПОВЕРХНОСТНОГО СТОКА

UDC 621.929
DOI 10.35776/VST.2023.07.06

Grigor’eva Anastasiia

Study of the optimal mode of sludge agitation in the receiving tank of a wastewater pumping station

Summary

Sludge agitation in the receiving tank of a wastewater pumping station is a rather serious problem due to the high risks of the pumping equipment failure, sludge caking and decay inside the tank. As a rule, sludge settling control methods provide for emptying only the area close to the suction nozzles of the pumps. In the rest of the tank, the caked sludge is periodically washed out by hand during maintenance or minimum filling. A comparison is made between two methods of sludge agitation in the receiving tank of a wastewater pumping station. In the first case, sludge is agitated hydraulically, i. e., using pipelines located along the perimeter of the tank. In the second, conical mixers of improved geometry are used, that is, sludge is agitated mechanically. A comparison of mixing efficiency was made using CFD-modeling. According to the results of modeling the hydrodynamics of mixing, during the operation of conical mixers, no stagnant zones is actually formed in the near-bottom mixing area.

Key words

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№07|2023

SURFACE RUNOFF TREATMENT

UDC 628.33:628.212.2
DOI 10.35776/VST.2023.07.07

Sukhomlinov Viktor, Melekhov Roman, Golosniakov Vitalii

Efficient treatment of surface runoff

Summary

The experience of practical operation of flow-through systems for surface runoff treatment in different real-life environment on the territory of the Russian Federation showed their complete technological failure. In the estimation of specialists, the process and design parameters of flow-through plants do not comply with the design standards in force in the Russian Federation, the declared degree of surface runoff treatment being unachievable; that is, virtually, flow-through systems simulate treatment processes. Along with the traditional set of pollutants typical for surface runoff (sand, suspended solids, oil products and heavy metals), microplastics pose a real threat to water bodies that receive storm water. Technological inconsistency of flow-through treatment systems and new objective tasks of removing additional types of pollution from surface runoff necessitate the use of reliable process solutions for the treatment of surface runoff.

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