08 2023

Number 8 / 2023

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№08|2023

WATER TREATMENT

UDC 628.16.066.1:628.164-92
DOI 10.35776/VST.2023.08.01

Bobinkin V. V., Vukolov Oleg, Gizzatullin Artur, Kasatochkin A. S., Kostylev Evgenii, Larionov S. Iu., Oliunin Sergei, Panteleev Aleksei, Riabchikov Boris, Савочкин А. Ю., Shilov Mikhail

Industrial horizontal intensified clarifier for water
softening/decarbonization by liming

Summary

Chemical softening methods have been widely used in the water treatment practice. As shown in the previous review, the chemistry of the process has remained unchanged over the past 100 years; however, the instrumentation of the process has changed. This equates to significantly increase the capacity and efficiency of the devices. Research work has been carried out on designing domestic intensified apparatus for softening/decarbonization of water by liming; and their introduction into industrial practice has started. Studies of the developed version of the multi-chamber horizontal clarifier with liming of Aquafloc type were carried out. The boundary parameters of the process of water liming with coagulation with iron salts were determined. It was established that the improved mixing, acceleration of chemical reactions and recirculation of carbonate sludge (seed) provide for the optimization of the sedimentation process to reduce the coagulant consumption and significantly improve the sludge characteristics. Essential advantages of the clarifier are as follows: smaller dimensions and metal consumption compared to classical clarifiers, as well as a short time to reach the operating mode. Thereby, an Aquafloc clarifier can be delivered to the site ready assembled, ready-to-use and with anti-corrosion protection that significantly reduces the time and cost of assembling at the facility. The concentration of dry matter in sludge reaches 8%. In comparison with the existing VTI-630 clarifiers, Aquafloc clarifier showed similar results in terms of chemical parameters and the best in terms of the concentration of suspended solids. In terms of water consumption for own needs, the clarifier turned out to be at the level of VTI apparatus that have a total blowdown volume of 2–4%.

Key words

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№08|2023

WATER TREATMENT

UDC 628.166.085
DOI 10.35776/VST.2023.08.02

Sobur Denis, Tkachev Andrei, Kostyuchenko S. V.

On the practicability of using ultraviolet to remove chloramines
in swimming pools

Summary

There is a practice of using ultraviolet irradiation as a method for removing chloramines from water in swimming pools and waterparks. The review of scientific publications devoted to this technology is presented. Based on the literature data, it is concluded that UV irradiation has practically no effect on the concentration of chloramines in water in swimming pools and waterparks. UV irradiation is more effective while being used for disinfection in combination with chlorination. The combination of UV irradiation and chlorination provides for the reliable disinfection with possible reducing the concentration of chlorine and its derivatives in pool water. And the removal of chloramines, if required, should be carried out by other technologies as part of advanced water treatment schemes that solve this problem more efficiently (correct multilayer filtration, the use of activated carbon, etc.).

Key words

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№08|2023

WATER TREATMENT

UDC 661.183.12
DOI 10.35776/VST.2023.08.03

Pavelkova Anna, Spitsov D. V.

Current state of the ion exchange resin market (a review)

Summary

Widespread use of ion exchange plants for both natural water and industrial wastewater treatment is driven by the use of various ion exchange resins. It provides for selecting a unit for both complete desalination of water and selective purification depending on the demands of work. The main fields of ion exchange application are considered. The specific features of ionite selection are analyzed depending on the type of filter regeneration, filtration mode and rate. The lack of a unified classification of ion exchange resins hampers their optimal choice since the very name gives no idea of their properties, which requires careful study of the characteristics. A comprehensive analysis of the current ionite market according to the classical classification, their interchangeability, possible import phaseout has been executed. The optimal choice of an ion exchange resin with the minimum cost of the treated water is made after a comprehensive analysis of the quality indicators of the treated and source water, filtration mode, type of the plant.

Key words

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№08|2023

WATER SUPPLY AND WASTEWATER DISPOSAL SCHEMES

UDC 628(14+21):66.011
DOI 10.35776/VST.2023.08.04

Gromov Grigorii, Novikov Kirill

On possible combining the concepts of BIM and GIS while developing schematics of external water supply and sewer networks

Summary

At the moment, the concepts of «scheme of water supply and wastewater disposal of a settlement» and «project documentation» are fixed in the Russian legislation. Based on the activities provided in the scheme, project documentation for each of them is further developed. At the same time, the development of an electronic model of the water supply and wastewater disposal scheme, in accordance with Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of September 5, 2013 No. 782, is carried out using software based on a geographic information system (GIS); whereas the design documentation for a capital construction object should be developed on the basis of an information model in accordance with Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 331 dated March 5, 2021. The information model is developed with the help of the software using BIM modeling. The analysis shows that for the moment the software that would fully combine these two concepts – GIS and BIM is not available. Interim results of the implementation of the software package in «Mosvodokanal» JSC are presented with the analysis of possible combining the concepts of BIM and GIS to obtain more accurate and complete information about the facility being implemented.

Key words

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№08|2023

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT

UDC 628.28
DOI 10.35776/VST.2023.08.05

Maslov Andrei

Efficient use of hydrodynamic nozzles for municipal combined sewer flushers and suction dredgers

Summary

Hydrodynamic cleaning of sewer networks is carried out by water utility services to maintain networks in working condition and for emergency elimination of blockages. In this case, combined sewer flushers and suction dredgers with a wide range of various sewer flushing nozzles are used. It is a correctly selected nozzle that is the key to the efficiency and speed of cleaning utility networks. To eliminate blockages in pipes, a set of nozzles is required – both standard and special. Currently, there are no universal nozzles that can cope with any type of blockage in a pipe of any material and any diameter. While choosing a nozzle, the determinants are the characteristics of the pump of the sewer flusher (water flow and pressure), the range of diameters of the pipes subject to cleaning, the dimensions of the washing hose and the general condition of the pipeline. It is also of utmost importance to correctly determine the range of work tasks. Before buying nozzles, it is recommended to seek the advice of specialists.

Key words

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№08|2023

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

UDC 628.35:665.666.6
DOI 10.35776/VST.2023.08.06

Kevbrina M. V., Gavrilov Dmitrii, Agarev Anton

Methodological approaches to the design of acidifiers for primary sludge to enhance the processes of nitrogen and phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater

Summary

The experience of introducing the process of raw sludge acidification at the Moscow wastewater treatment facilities is summarized. Two types of acidifiers have been operated at the Kuryanovskie and Lyuberetskie Wastewater Treatment Facilities in Moscow: acidifiers-thickeners and acidification reactors (mixers) with subsequent rinsing and thickening in a separate thickener. The main indicator for the acidification process is the solids retention time (SRT, solids retention time). At Moscow wastewater treatment plants, it was 3.5 days, that was the optimal value. Extra formation of BOD5 (an increase in acidificate-enriched primary water compared to primary water) from 17.8 ± 9.1 to 31 ± 17.5 mg/l and specific BOD5 formation of 0.1 mg/mg of suspended solids, or 0.15 mg/mg of ashless matter (an increase in acidificate-enriched primary water compared to primary water in specific formation of BOD5 from 1 mg of suspended or ash-free matter settled in primary settlers and sent to the acidifier) was shown. Formulas are derived for calculating the basic process indicators: hydraulic retention time, retention time as dry matter, the rate of formation of volatile fatty acids. An algorithm of process calculations for designing sludge acidifiers of primary settling tanks in order to enhance the processes of removing nitrogen and phosphorus from municipal wastewater is presented.

Key words

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