03 2023

Number 3 / 2023

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№03|2023

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

UDC 628.161
DOI 10.35776/VST.2023.03.01

Alekseeva L. P., Alekseev S. E.

Optimization of the process of colored water chemical treatment in characteristic periods of the year

Summary

Significant seasonal changes in the water quality in natural water supply sources cause problems in the purification of drinking water at a water treatment plant. This is particularly true in the process of purification of low-turbid colored water with a high concentration of organic substances, at low water temperatures. During flood periods, the pollution load on the treatment facilities increases significantly; as a result, the quality of treated water deteriorates, and it is rather difficult, and in some cases impossible, to ensure meeting the standards for some indicators. The problem is solved by applying various methods and creating conditions for the coagulation process, taking into account seasonal changes in the quality of the raw water and technological options for the purification at the water treatment facilities.

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№03|2023

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

UDC 628.161.3
DOI 10.35776/VST.2023.03.02

Gandurina L. V., Budykina T. A., Iantsen O. V.

Removing fine clay impurities from natural water

Summary

The effect of the clay impurities (loams, clays, bentonites, kaolin) origin that determines the turbidity of natural water, on the kinetics of their sedimentation was studied. The percentage of clay impurities with a hydraulic size of 0.11 mm/s was determined. The effectiveness of the independent use of Praestol 650 cationic flocculant for removing clay impurities of various origin from turbid water is considered. It was established that the efficiency of natural water purification depended on the mineral composition and disperse characteristics of clay particles and could be increased for kaolinite-containing clay impurities from 69 to 91% by optimizing the flocculation parameters. It was shown that the optimal dose of Praestol 650 flocculant did not depend on the origin and disperse characteristics of clay particles and was 0.2 mg/l at an initial water turbidity of 107–187 mg/l. The possible use of the kinetic and flocculation characteristics of clay impurities in natural water to identify their mineral composition is considered.

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№03|2023

WATER TREATMENT

UDC 628.16.066.1:628.164-92
DOI 10.35776/VST.2023.03.03

Savochkin Andrei, Kasatochkin A. S., Panteleev Aleksei, Riabchikov Boris, Larionov S. Iu., Gizzatullin Artur

Designing horizontal clarifiers and studying the efficiency of the water liming process

Summary

Chemical softening methods have been widely used in water treatment. As shown in the previous review, the chemistry of the process has remained unchanged for the past 100 years; however, the instrumentation has changed. This provides for increasing significantly the capacity of the devices and their efficiency. Mediana-Filter R&P JSC carried out research on the development of domestic intensified devices. The studies were carried out in a small-scale laboratory three-chambered horizontal clarifier with a lamellar settling tank and in a pilot clarifier with a variable chamber volume. The optimal procedure of introducing chemicals, the minimum and optimal residence time of water in the clarifier chambers have been determined. The achieved rate of the upward flow in the zone of clarification in the boundary conditions was 25 m/h. The data obtained was taken as a basis ground for designing industrial apparatuses.

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№03|2023

LAWS, STANDARDS, NORMATIVES

UDC 628.2/.4:006.3
DOI 10.35776/VST.2023.03.04

Danilovich Dmitrii

Obtaining design data for the calculation of wastewater treatment facilities for communities in accordance with Amendment No. 2 of CP 32.13330.2018

Summary

The main innovations introduced by Amendment No. 2 to CP 32.13330.2018 «Sewerage. Pipelines and Wastewater Treatment Plants» with regard to obtaining design data for calculating wastewater treatment facilities for communities are considered. The main content of the new D Appendix as part of this Code of Practice, dedicated to this issue, is outlined, where the instructions are differentiated on obtaining design data for calculations provided the primary design data is sufficient, or insufficient. In particular, the specified requirements for taking into account predicted changes in the drainage sewer territory, determining the daily and hourly coefficients of unevenness, and determining the calculated concentrations of pollutants are described.

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№03|2023

DESIGNING WATER AND WASTEWATER SYSTEMS

UDC 621.644.07:519.863:006.053
DOI 10.35776/VST.2023.03.05

Shlafman Vitalii

The time factor in a technical and economic calculation task

Summary

Developing quantitative estimates of technical solutions assumes the calculation of economic indicators of the considered solutions. The properties of engineering and economic comparison models with account of the time factor are considered. The key aspects and properties of engineering and economic comparison models of the options are presented; the analysis of the content of the discounted cost indicator was carried out; its main properties were highlighted. The conditions for bringing options to a comparable form, identical material result and targeted economic efficiency are considered. The graphical material interpreting the discounted cost indicator is given. A simple interpretation of the discount rate is proposed. Its effect on the result of solving the problem of engineering and economic comparison of the options is shown. The ratio of the discounted cost indicator to the indicator of the duration of the life cycle of objects is considered. A method for interpreting the discounted cost indicator in practical calculations is proposed. It is shown that the knowledge of the general principles compensates for the ignorance of certain facts.

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№03|2023

ENERGY CONSERVATION

UDC 628.166.085
DOI 10.35776/VST.2023.03.06

Bogun P. V.

Effect of the reflection from the reactor walls
on the energy efficiency of UV water disinfection units

Summary

The results of a theoretical study of possible improving the effective dose of irradiation in a water disinfection unit with ultraviolet (UV) radiation without increasing the lamp power, as well as studying the effect of the radiation reflection from the reactor inner surface on the operation of the disinfection units are presented. The calculations were carried out for the most popular design with one lamp and a cylindrical reactor with specular reflection from the walls. The calculations have shown that at a high reflection coefficient of radiation and at certain ratios of the effective length of the propagation of UV radiation in water and the dimensions of the reactor, the energy efficiency, i. e., the plant capacity per unit of power consumed, can be increased by 35–40 % compared to the already known designs.

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№03|2023

WASTEWATER DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

UDC 628.221
DOI 10.35776/VST.2023.03.07

Volkov Sergei, Luk’ianchuk Maksim, Zhitenev A. I., Kuz’min Valentin, Rublevskaya O. N., Hyamyalyainen M. M., Gvozdev V. A., Erofeev Vasilii, Kostenko I. G., IGNATCHIK V. S., Ignatchik S. Iu., Kuznetsova N. V., Seniukovich Mikhail

Methods and results of estimating calculated rain parameters
for the surface runoff disposal systems of Saint-Petersburg
Part 1. For hydraulic calculations while designing

Summary

Municipal systems of surface runoff disposal must be adapted to the conditions of the changed climate with account of the local conditions and specific circuit designs. In accordance with the world practice, one of the stages of the work package in this area is the justification of the calculated rain parameters for the considered climate area. At the same time, to solve design problems, it is enough to adjust the standard climatic parameters. When substantiating their calculated values, the method of adaptation of the complex parameter A is applied to the group of scaling methods. It was established that for St. Petersburg, the dynamics of change in parameter A for the period ∆τ = 50 years was 9.1%. The result obtained using this method was verified by comparing it with the results of other studies: cited in the third estimation report on climate changes and their consequences in the Russian Federation; obtained by the FSBI «Main Geophysical Observatory named after A. I. Voeikov»; obtained by the classical method that provided for processing of the primary experimental information.

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