05 2023

Number 5 / 2023

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№05|2023

WATER TREATMENT

UDC 628.164-92:66.081.63
DOI 10.35776/VST.2023.05.01

Kasatochkin A. S., Larionov S. Iu., Kharitonov Nikolai, Shilov Mikhail, Савочкин А. Ю., Riabchikov Boris

Purification of water with high permanent hardness and salinity

Summary

Chemical softening methods have been widely used in the practice of water treatment, primarily in the energetics and industry for softening, decarbonization and decoloration of water. In combination with reverse osmosis, they provide for preparing water of the required qualitative composition. In drinking water supply softening methods are used quite rarely due to a number of circumstances, such as the need to use various chemicals that are not typical for public water supply; generation of a large volume of sludge subject to subsequent processing, and, what is most important, resulting in highly alkaline water with pH of more than 10 unacceptable for drinking water. However, in case only but water sources with such a complex composition are available, then chemical methods have to be used. In Mediana-Filter Research and Production Company, JSC studies were carried out to obtain high-quality water from an underground source of uncharacteristic salt composition, with a high content of sulfates and low alkalinity, provided that the purification technology should generate minimum liquid waste. After testing several technology options in pilot plants, a scheme was proposed that met the requirements of the customer. It should be noted that underground water of the southern regions of the country has a partially similar salt composition, so the results of pilot tests can also be applied to obtain drinking water from similar sources.

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№05|2023

DISCUSSING REGULATORY DOCUMENTS

UDC 628.2/.4:006.3:349.6
DOI 10.35776/VST.2023.05.02

Vereshchagina Lidiia, Danilovich Dmitrii, Frog Dmitrii

On the issue of making amendments to the CP 32.13330.2018
«SNiP 2.04.03-85 Sewerage. Pipelines and Wastewater Treatment Plants» with regard to designing systems for surface runoff disposal and treatment

Summary

An explanation is given of certain provisions of CP 32.13330.2018 «SNiP 2.04.03-85 Sewerage. Pipelines and Wastewater Treatment Plants», put into force on January 28, 2022 by order of the Ministry of Construction of Russia dated December 27, 2021 No. 1023/pr. CP 32.13330.2018 «SNiP 2.04.03-85 Sewerage. Pipelines and Wastewater Treatment Plants» with regard to designing systems for surface runoff disposal and treatment in relation to the classification of surface runoff origin into two types by the territorial-industrial attribute; an updated definition of surface runoff of the 1st and 2nd types is submitted. The provisions of paragraph 7.1.4 of the Code of Practice, not regulated by law, are discussed, concerning the development of standards for permissible discharges for customers of public wastewater disposal systems in communities that do not have treatment facilities for effluent discharge into a water body. It is noted that the problem cannot be resolved within the framework of the current Code of Practice 32.13330.2018. To develop a basis for regulating relations in this situation, amending the provisions of Article 60 of the Water Code of the Russian Federation, which contains a ban on discharging wastewater into water bodies without sanitary treatment and neutralization, is required.

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№05|2023

UPGRADE QUALIFICATIONS

UDC 628.1/.3:331.363.7
DOI 10.35776/VST.2023.05.03

Lebedeva Aleksandra, Petrova Liudmila

The Association of Living Water Engineers as a modern response to the challenges of water supply and sanitation industry

Summary

The article is devoted to the unique approach of the Association of Living Water Engineers, which provides for the unity of water supply and sanitation specialists for interaction in order to develop the industry. Based on the analysis of industry problems, the authors point to the preconditions for the creation of the Association of Living Water Engineers. Much attention is given to the aspects of internal communications and interaction among specialists. The authors report on the main achievements and innovations introduced within the community during the year of its existence.

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№05|2023

WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS

UDC 628.144:681.884
DOI 10.35776/VST.2023.05.04

Maslov Andrei

Acoustic diagnostics of damages in pipeline networks

Summary

Every year hundreds of failures in water distribution networks not only lead to disruption of water supply and water losses, but also cause damage to urban infrastructure and private property of the population. Water leaks often cause soil washing, sinkholes, accidents and even fatalities. Herewith, not only direct water losses and energy consumption of the water supply system increase, but also increases the risk of third-party material costs. Significant volumes of water are also lost due to unauthorized water use. Therefore, the availability of a system for detecting and monitoring leaks in every water supply system is essential. The most popular way of fault location is the acoustic method of monitoring water pipes. This method is applied in three main ways, complementing each other: acoustic listening, correlation and zone control. A comprehensive acoustic survey is the best approach to inspecting pipeline networks and solving the problems of leak detection, which provides a significant reduction in water losses up to 5–0%!

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№05|2023

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

UDC 628.35
DOI 10.35776/VST.2023.05.05

Stepanov S. V., Avdeenkov Pavel, Ponomarenko Ol’ga, MOROZOVA K. M.

Optimization and technical and economic evaluation of the process flow schemes of wastewater treatment of a plant for chicken egg advanced processing

Summary

The results of searching for the optimal process scheme for wastewater treatment of an enterprise for advanced processing of chicken eggs are presented. The optimization was carried out in terms of the life cycle cost (LCC) for a period of 25 years operation for the newly built treatment facilities with a capacity of 600 m3/day. The considered options include mechanical, one- and two-stage aerobic biological treatment in a membrane bioreactor with nitri-denitrification, with primary chemical pressure flotation with different doses of coagulant and without flotation. Process design was made on the basis of experimentally determined technological and kinetic parameters. The economic feasibility of primary physical and chemical purification was proved, and what is more, the most cost-effective was the treatment with Aqua-Aurat™-14 coagulant trademark with a dose of 125 mg/l as Al2O3, corresponding to the highest efficiency of physical and chemical purification. Retrofitting chemical flotation into the process flow scheme provided for reducing LCC by 7.7%. It is shown that with the availability of physical and chemical treatment dividing biological treatment into two stages virtually produces no economic effect on LCC. Taking into account the lowest energy consumption and the size of the structures the most useful option turned out to be the one with primary physical and chemical treatment and single-stage aeration tanks. The cost of wastewater treatment in this case was 99.66 RUB/m3, or 18.62 RUB/kg BODtot. For all the considered options in the LCC structure, the capital costs had the highest value – 22.2–27.9%, the payroll fund – 17.3–19.2%, equipment replacement – 17.4–19%.

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№05|2023

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

UDC 628.35
DOI 10.35776/VST.2023.05.06

Нездойминов В. И., Рожков В. С., Zavorotnyi Dmitrii, Chernyshev Valentin, Vasil’eva Iuliia

Municipal wastewater treatment systems based on airlift bioreactors

Summary

The aspects of municipal wastewater biological treatment with activated sludge with the cultivation of phosphorus-accumulating microorganisms and simultaneous nitri-denitrification are considered. Improved schemes for the biological removal of organic pollutants, nitrogen and phosphorus compounds based on airlift bioreactors (BOSEB technology) are presented. The main results of pilot studies are submitted that acknowledge the effectiveness of the proposed technology in the treatment of municipal wastewater. The features of the operation of an activated sludge blanket type tank built into an airlift bioreactor have been studied. It has been experimentally established that during the operation of the sludge blanket tank, either the presence or absence of phosphorus-accumulating microorganisms in the activated sludge biocenosis does not affect the efficiency of removing suspended solids. Empirical dependences have been obtained for the calculation of the facilities for sludge separation in a self-renewing activated sludge blanket. It has been established that the main controlled parameter of the biological treatment process is the dissolved oxygen concentration in the saturation zone (upper part of the airlift bioreactor), which should be in the range of 1.6–2.4 g/m3. An economic evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed solutions was carried out in comparison with the SBR process. The advantages of the BOSEB technology are presented in relation to the schemes of enhanced biological removal of phosphorus accepted in the Russian Federation and abroad.

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№05|2023

ABROAD

UDC 628.1/.2:001.4
DOI 10.35776/VST.2023.05.07

Kofman V. Ya.

On the meaning of the term «emerging contaminants»

Summary

The term «emerging contaminants» has been widely used in modern scientific and technical literature on the problem of environmental pollution. Meanwhile, the examples of using translation versions of this term in the Russian-language relevant literature indicate the lack of an adequate understanding of the meaning of this term. In the English-language scientific and technical literature «emerging contaminants» currently refer to the substances and materials of natural, industrial or artificial origin found or presumably present in various environments; and their toxicity or stability can significantly change the metabolism of living beings. These substances have been classified as «emerging contaminants» while there is a lack of information in the scientific literature, or questions about their potential problems have been poorly documented. In general, «emerging contaminants» show certain potential to create risks to the human health or environment; however, they have not been subject to regulatory criteria or standards to protect human health or the environment, so far. What they have in common is the lack of relevant data on the environmental role and potential toxicity, which makes assessing correctly the risks associated with them impossible. Already regulated, presumably well-known pollutants may revert to the status of «emerging contaminants» as and when new scientific information becomes available, prompting regulators to revise regulations and recommendations.

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