Tag:potable water

№5|2017

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.166.094.3

FESENKO L. N., Skryabin A. Yu., Breus S. A., Pchel'nikov I. V.

Field tests of drinking water disinfection by direct electrolysis

Summary

The results of studying direct electrolysis of natural underground water with the purpose of determining possible production of low concentration sodium hypochlorite for drinking water disinfection before supplying it to the residents of Grushevskaia village of the Aksaisk District, Rostov Area are presented. The use of natural surface or underground water as electrolyte provides for eliminating the stage of artificial chloride solution making; that will simplify the technology of disinfectant production at the point of application and reduce the operation expenses. The studies were carried out in a full-scale plant in two directions: determination of the optimal parameters of the flow-through electrolyzer; determination of the lifetime of electrodes. The results of the full-scale studies confirmed possible disinfection of chloride-containing natural water (chloride concentrations 200–233 mg/dm3) by direct electrolysis. The process parameters of the electrolyzer operation with underground fresh water were determined: current density; water flow to the elect­rolyzer (flow rate); the time of electrode operation as an anode and as a cathode. The optimal composition of electrode coating was determined: in ruthenium –iridium oxide coating the weight ratio of Ru to Ir was 20:80. The use of iridium in the coating effects the formation of active chlorine and the electrode lifetime. The presence of ruthenium in the oxide layer in 20:80 weight ratio to iridium increases the anode lifetime tenfold (up to 4000 hours) compared to the anode without iridium.

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№6|2016

ADVANCED EQUIPMENT

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UDC 628.168

Bobinkin V. V., Ershov A. G., Kasatochkin A. S., Larionov S. Iu., Panteleev A. A., Riabchikov B. E., Semin M. M., Shilov M. M.

Commercial plant for removing chloroorganic compounds  from underground water

Summary

The existing technology of removing chloroorganic compounds from underground water allowed designing a relatively simple and reliable flow scheme. Within the shortest possible time a commercial plant with a capacity of up to 250 m3/h (4000 m3/day) of water cleaned off volatile chloroorganic compounds at the «Zalineinyi» water intake in Podolsk city, Moscow Area, was designed. This allowed commissioning temporally abandoned water wells and improving the municipal water supply. At the first stage of reconstruction the process flow scheme of water treatment was upgraded with a system of enhanced aeration-air stripping of volatile chloroorganic compounds, a first lift pumping station, a mechanical filters block charged with granulated activated carbon. After purification the concentration of volatile chloroorganic compounds in water was lower then the regulatory requirements. The second reconstruction stage envisages commissioning a reverse osmosis plant to eliminate water hardness to the optimal level.

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№6|2021

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.06.02
UDC 628.164

Kasatochkin A. S., Larionov S. Iu., Panteleev A. A., Riabchikov B. E., Shilov M. M.

Development of a dynamic water softening system – DSS

Summary

Underground water sources with a high concentration of hardness salts are often used for drinking water supply. The known methods of softening result in the formation of a significant amount of liquid and solid waste – saline wastewater or sludge that cannot be subject to utilization. Chemical softening of drinking water in clarifiers is rarely used due to the difficulty of preparing chemicals, maintaining the required and constant water temperature, to the complexity of installations and their maintenance. Since the 1990s, the technology of chemical softening in intensified reactors (vortex and in a blanket) has been widely used in drinking water supply. Such apparatuses have been widely used in Europe and the USA. Currently, Mediana-Filter Research and Production Company, JSC has been working on the development and study of this reactor type. They have a high specific capacity – 50–100 m3/(m2·h) and are much easier to maintain compared to clarifiers. The capacity of such equipment reaches thousands of cubic meters per hour. Their main advantage is the absence of liquid discharges, generation of solid waste, which can be subject to utilization, as well as an almost 100% yield of
clean water.

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№11|2010

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.161.004.6

Meshengisser Yu. M., Ulchenko V. M.

Retechnologization and Reconstruction of Water Treatment Systems

Summary

Basic propositions of the concept of water treatment systems retechnologization and its distinctions from retechnologization of wastewater treatment facilities are stated. Recently in the course of reconstruction of water supply facilities growing attention is paid to ecological aspects of their operation and such reconstruction is practically impossible without retechnologization. The process of retechnologization of water treatment and treatment of sediment of natural high- colored and slightly turbid water is described on the example of the State Unitary Enterprise PO Sevmash in the city of Severodvinsk of the Arkhangelsk Region. In the city of Sharya the EcopolymerGroup has executed the retechnologization of the water supply station with the aim to increase the capacity of operating facilities. The reconstruction of water supply treatment facilities in the city of Kovel (Ukraine) has made it possible to reduce iron content in potable water and improve operation characteristics of the facilities.

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№10|2013

WATER SOURCES QUALITY MONITORING

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UDC 504.064.4:351.777

Tymchuk S. N., Larin V. E., Sokolov D. M.

Sanitary regulation and sanitary control – the basis of ensuring water body safety

Summary

Water safety is provided with two complementary processes: sanitary regulation and sanitary control of water bodies. The task of sanitary regulation is setting safety requirements to biological, chemical and physical indices. Sanitary representative microorganisms include representatives of obligatory microflora of human and homoiotherm organisms that allow estimating the degree of biogeneous pollution. These are Escherichia coli (collibacillus), fecal streptococcus (enterococcus), sulfite-reducing clostridia spores, Proteus, thermophilic microorganisms, coliphages (bacterial viruses) etc. Sanitary index is reflecting the presence and amount of one or another sanitary representative microorganism in a specified sample size taken from the water body under investigation. Qualitative sanitary index reflects and regulates the absence or presence of specified microorganisms in a specified sample size. Quantitative sanitary index is the concentration of specified (unknown) microorganisms in the specified sample size. Index figure reflects the degree of fecal contamination of the water body (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, coliphages). Indicator figure reflects the efficiency of disinfection processes and technologies and points at possible presence of pathogens with different tolerance (Clostridium perfringens, coliphages). World Health Organization recommends distinguishing between two types of microbiological monitoring: for estimating water treatment efficiency; for identifying fecal pollution and presence of pathogens.

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№2|2013

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.147.22:620.197.3

Portnova T. M., Veremey T. A., Bekrenev A. V., KINEBAS A. K.

Stabilization of corrosive water at the Petrodvoretz water treatment plant

Summary

In order to prevent corrosion in steel water distribution pipelines pilot tests of a water stabilization system fed with water from the South water treatment plant of Saint-Petersburg were carried out at the Petrodvoretz water treatment plant. During the entire period of chemical dosing steel passivation was achieved which provided for the tendency for iron concentration decrease at the test points of the Petrodvoretz water distribution network.

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№2|2013

POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16.081

Alekseeva L. P., Yegorov V. F., Staroselets L. N., Panicheva S. A., Adayeva S. N.

Reducing residual aluminium concentration in drinking water at the Yaroslavl South water treatment plant

Summary

The aspects of elevated residual aluminium concentrations in drinking water at the Yaroslavl South water treatment plant are considered. On the basis of analyzing the data on water quality the effect of separate parameters on the residual concentration of aluminium was revealed. The experimental results of investigating the Volga river water treatment with the use of different coagulants and flocculants are presented. The expediency of replacing aluminium sulfate and Praestol-650 flocculant with aluminium oxychloride coagulant in cold seasons is shown.

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№4|2022

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.04.01
UDC 628.1

Demin A. P.

The current situation with supplying the population of the Crimean Peninsula with clean drinking water

Summary

The work object was studying the issues of supplying the population of Crimea with clean drinking water after the reunification with the Russian Federation. The studies used statistical materials from Rosvodresursy, Rospotrebnadzor, Krymstat, the Ministry of Ecology and the Ministry of Resorts of the Republic of Crimea. The data on the dynamics of water consumption for drinking and household needs in the Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol is given. An increase in the number of public water supply sources not equipped with a sanitary protection zone is shown. The share of the urban housing stock equipped with running water significantly exceeds the share of the rural housing stock. The growing deterioration of the water supply network is the main reason for the increase of water leaks. In 2014–2020, leaks in the Crimean water supply network increased from 63.2 to 96.8 million m3, or by 53%, and on a per 1 km basis of networks – from 4.7 to 7.4 thousand m3 (57%). There is a decrease in the average daily water consumption per person in the territory of the peninsula and in the main resorts of Crimea. The share of the population and the number of municipalities supplied with imported water is increasing. The deterioration of water quality in the sources of drinking water supply, including in municipalities, is shown. A decrease in the share of the population supplied with safe drinking water was revealed in the Republic of Crimea, Sevastopol. Some proposals for the sustainable water use in the conditions of the growing shortage are given.

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№11|2017

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.1.033

Chupin V. R.

The current state and problems of the public water supply system of the city of Irkutsk and Irkutsk Area

Summary

Supplying the population with high quality drinking water has been a high-priority task of the urban land development. Lake Baikal and the Angara River, its effluent, supply most of the Irkutsk Area population with drinking water. The pure drinkable water of Baikal that the Angara is carrying is as such only upstream of Irkutsk. Onwards it turns into the holding pond of industrial and domestic wastewater. Downstream Irkutsk the Angara water cannot be used for drinking water supply without organics, heavy metals and oil products removal. Using the example of establi­shing the public water supply system of the Irkutsk Area the aspects of supplying water from the open surface water sources were studied. It is shown that the water use under the conditions of the regulated surface water sources with significant water level fluctuations demands constructing combined water intakes of special design – shore, channel, infiltration and pontoon. The sources with low-mineralized water shall be used in combination with mineralized underground water. The need of developing group water supply systems with the use of protected underground water sources or large-scale surface fresh water sources is shown.

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№1|2010

PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES

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UDC 628.162/.163

Pavlov A. A., Dziminskas Ch. A., Kostyuchenko S. V., Zaytseva S. G.

Modern Technologies of Potable Water Preparation at the Sludinskaya Waterworks of Nizhny Novgorod

Summary

It is told about introduction, for the first time in Russia, of modern technologies of preparation of potable water at the Sludinskaya waterworks of Nizhny Novgorod: chlorammonization, ozonization, optimal system of coagulation, UV-disinfection that has allowed to optimize operational costs, to minimize negative by-effects and to provide high quality of potable water.

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№3|2022

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.03.02
UDC 628.164

Kasatochkin A. S., Larionov S. Iu., Panteleev A. A., Riabchikov B. E., Shapovalov Dmitrii, Kharitonov Nikolai, Shilov M. M.

Comparison of the options of systems for adjusting the salt composition of water from underground sources

Summary

Underground water sources with a high content of hardness salts are often used for drinking water supply. To achieve drinking water quality reducing its hardness is required. Known methods of softening result in the formation of a significant amount of liquid and solid wastes, i. e. mineralized wastewater or sludge that cannot be disposed of. Chemical water softening in clarifiers is used quite rarely owing to the difficulty of preparing chemicals, maintaining the constant required water temperature, and the complexity and maintenance of the equipment. In the 1990s, the technology of chemical softening in intensified reactors (vortex and blanket) was developed that gained widespread use in drinking water supply. Such units are quite frequently used in Europe and USA. At present Mediana-Filter Research and Production Company JSC is taking on the task of designing and testing reactors of this type. They have a high specific output of 50–100 m3/(m2·h), and their maintenance is much easier compared to clarifiers. The capacity of such plants reaches thousands of cubic meters per hour. Their main advantage is the elimination of liquid discharges and generation of solid wastes that can subject to utilization, while the yield of clean water is about 100%.

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№10|2011

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

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UDC 628.16.066.1(282.247.41)

Podkovyrov V. P., Arutyunova I. Yu., Yagunkov S. Yu., Shemyakin Yu. V., Strikhar Yu. V.

Technology of high-speed water clarification with the use of microsand

Summary

The Research & Development Centre of MPUE Mosvodokanal investigated a new process of high-speed water clarification. The presented technology is an upgraded option of the traditional technology of water clarification. It allows using the potential of coagulation-settlement processes to the maximum extent. These processes have been the vital stage of the water treatment technology. The results of the studies showed that the developed technology ensures more efficient color and permanganate oxidizability removal compared to the traditional water treatment process used; besides, it decreases drastically the concentration of residual aluminium in drinking water.

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№1|2022

PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES

DOI 10.35776/VST.2022.01.01
UDC 628.166

Vasiliak L. M., Koudryavtsev N. N., SMIRNOV A. D., Strelkov A. K.

Ultraviolet plus ultrasound, and why again «there are no analogues in the world»?

Summary

Ultrasound has not been widely practiced in the world as a water disinfection technology. It has a low energy efficiency of disinfection in comparison with ultraviolet irradiation, therefore cannot be applied on its own. The combined effect of ultrasound and UV-irradiation does not have a synergistic effect, since these photo-biological and physicochemical processes are different and independent from each other. There are no criteria and methods for monitoring the effectiveness of ultrasound disinfection. The use of ultrasound is not regulated by sanitary rules and guidelines related to the disinfection of drinking and waste water. Cleaning of quartz covers is carried out using mechanical systems and chemical rinsing; international equipment manufacturers do not use ultrasound for this purpose. Personnel protection from the harmful impact of ultrasound is required.

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№3|2021

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

DOI 10.35776/VST.2021.03.02
UDC 628.16:614.35

Remizova Iuliia, Golovanova Anna, Rudakova Dar’ia, Mitilineos Aleksandr

Experimental estimation of the efficiency of removing residual amounts of antibiotics and steroid hormones from water with home water purification systems

Summary

To remove residual amounts of pharmaceutical compounds present in drinking water, a variety of purification methods based on various physicochemical principles can be used at all stages of water treatment. The paper presents the results of an experimental study of the efficiency of removing residual concentrations of pharmaceuticals – laevomycetin antibiotic (chloramphenicol) and estrone steroid hormone – from a model solution prepared on the basis of tap water with the addition of drugs, using a home fixed water purification system. It is shown that the home water purification system provides for the significant reduction of residual concentrations of chloramphenicol and estrone throughout the service life declared by the manufacturer. In the household water purification sector, adsorption-type units are still the most in-demand type of water purification systems that provide for the high efficiency in removing various pollutants with minimal capital costs.

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